Thatta is an ancient city of the Indus delta. The city is situated about 100 kilometers from Karachi, Pakistan via the national highway. It had great importance in history and today is famous for its archeological sites and centuries old monuments, which are great tourist attractions. [Click on photos to enlarge]

According to historians Thatta may have been the main port on the Indus in the time of Alexander the Great's invasion. The river Indus has changed its course many times since the days of Alexander, and this ancient site of Patala has been subject to much conjecture (the river changes course slowly due to a process called "siltation" which is essentially water pollution by fine silt particles).

Thatta was the capital of three successive dynasties, the traces of which are evident in the Makli necropolis, which spreads over a twelve square kilometer area. These dynasties are: Samma (1335-1520), Arghun  (1520-1555) and Tarkhan (1555-1665).

There are archeological sites in the city and on its outskirts. The most famous of these sites is the Makli Hill, which is the biggest necropolis in the world and about three kilometers from Thatta.

Because of its cultural and archeological importance, in the 1980s UNESCO listed the Makli necropolis as a World Heritage Site. The most preserved area of the necropolis is Makli Hill, which comprises about 35 monuments and contains four different schools of architecture and art made from stone to brick and glaze.

The monuments here also tell the story of external cultural influences in Lower Sindh, including Hindu, Central Asian and Persian cultures.

Later on, the city of Thatta was ruled by the Mughal emperors of Delhi through its governors, leaving an indelible mark on the shape of the monuments there. The most famous example of Mughal architecture is the Shah Jahan Mosque, constructed in the latter half of the seventeenth century.

Thatta played an important role in the history of Sindh and the city was constantly renovated from the 14 to 18 century. But in 1739, when the province of Sindh was taken over by Nadir Shah of Persia, Thatta entered into a period of decline. However the four centuries that comprise the golden age of Thatta have left their traces on the form of monuments in the region. - Text by Mukhtar Azad

Another view of the main hall of the mosque, from a window in the dome on the roof. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
Another view of the main hall of the mosque, from a window in the dome on the roof. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
An afternoon nap in the cool shade of the mosque hall. The Shah Jehan Mosque is architecturally very different from those built in Lahore and Delhi in the same period. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
An afternoon nap in the cool shade of the mosque hall. The Shah Jehan Mosque is architecturally very different from those built in Lahore and Delhi in the same period. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
The mosque is a combination of Turkish and local artwork, which is profusely used on tile work in the ceiling decoration of semi-domed and domed chambers; as well as in the fillings of interlaced arches. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqui/Dawn.com
The mosque is a combination of Turkish and local artwork, which is profusely used on tile work in the ceiling decoration of semi-domed and domed chambers; as well as in the fillings of interlaced arches. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqui/Dawn.com
A view of the Jame Masijid entrance, commonly known as Shah Jahani Mosque, which was built by Emperor of Hindustan Shah Jahan and completed in 1647. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
A view of the Jame Masijid entrance, commonly known as Shah Jahani Mosque, which was built by Emperor of Hindustan Shah Jahan and completed in 1647. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
A view from the opposite side. This mosque has 93 domes and 33 arches with varying sizes. A piece of local folklore suggests that the domes are charmed in such a way that whoever tries to count them always gets confused and comes up with different results. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
A view from the opposite side. This mosque has 93 domes and 33 arches with varying sizes. A piece of local folklore suggests that the domes are charmed in such a way that whoever tries to count them always gets confused and comes up with different results. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
A view of the mosque courtyard and prayer area. This mosque was built by Mir Abdullah on the orders of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and is a masterpiece of Mughal architecture. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A view of the mosque courtyard and prayer area. This mosque was built by Mir Abdullah on the orders of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and is a masterpiece of Mughal architecture. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
The main Mihrab of the mosque in its front hall from where the prayers are led. It is said that Shah Jahan built this mosque as a gesture of gratitude to the people of Thatta for sheltering him during his youth after his father, Emperor Jahangir banished him from Delhi. [Image is a stitch of 5 photographs] - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
The main Mihrab of the mosque in its front hall from where the prayers are led. It is said that Shah Jahan built this mosque as a gesture of gratitude to the people of Thatta for sheltering him during his youth after his father, Emperor Jahangir banished him from Delhi. [Image is a stitch of 5 photographs] - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A view of the shrine of Hazrat Abdullah Shah Ashabi at Makli. According to locals and historical references, 125,000 saints have found their last resting place in Makli. Those buried here aren?t all Sufi's or saints, but also include scholars, rulers, and ordinary people. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
A view of the shrine of Hazrat Abdullah Shah Ashabi at Makli. According to locals and historical references, 125,000 saints have found their last resting place in Makli. Those buried here aren?t all Sufi's or saints, but also include scholars, rulers, and ordinary people. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
The tomb was built on a base of stone blocks. The building was constructed using red baked bricks, but now - like most tombs in Makli - it lies in serious disrepair. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
The tomb was built on a base of stone blocks. The building was constructed using red baked bricks, but now - like most tombs in Makli - it lies in serious disrepair. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
A view of two kinds of tomb built during the Tarkhan era. One [left] is made of the familiar stone but the other is the brick tomb of Sultan Ibrahim, the son of Isa Khan I (and brother of Isa Khan II whose tomb is pictured earlier). Ibrahim died in 1550.  - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A view of two kinds of tomb built during the Tarkhan era. One [left] is made of the familiar stone but the other is the brick tomb of Sultan Ibrahim, the son of Isa Khan I (and brother of Isa Khan II whose tomb is pictured earlier). Ibrahim died in 1550. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A closer view of the Sultan's tomb, through an archway in a broken outer wall. The stonework also includes Jali (grills) and was originally, decorated with blue glazed tiles. The work is believed to have been carried out by Persian craftsmen and also those from Central Asia who were influenced by the traditions passed on from ancient civilizations of Nainnavah and Babylon. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A closer view of the Sultan's tomb, through an archway in a broken outer wall. The stonework also includes Jali (grills) and was originally, decorated with blue glazed tiles. The work is believed to have been carried out by Persian craftsmen and also those from Central Asia who were influenced by the traditions passed on from ancient civilizations of Nainnavah and Babylon. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
Inside the tomb, the grave is decorated with complex Quranic calligraphy. In Makli, Arabic scripts like Naskh and Nastaleeq were inscribed on stone graves in an expression of faith. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
Inside the tomb, the grave is decorated with complex Quranic calligraphy. In Makli, Arabic scripts like Naskh and Nastaleeq were inscribed on stone graves in an expression of faith. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
An external view of the Jam Unner tomb. The dynasty that he founded was located in Lar or Lower Sindh, and was first mentioned in 1355 by Ibn-e-Battuta, the famous traveler from North Africa. The facade of the tomb is crumbling and vandalised with scratched political graffiti.  - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
An external view of the Jam Unner tomb. The dynasty that he founded was located in Lar or Lower Sindh, and was first mentioned in 1355 by Ibn-e-Battuta, the famous traveler from North Africa. The facade of the tomb is crumbling and vandalised with scratched political graffiti. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A brick tomb of the Samma royal family members. Samma were the first dynasty who made Thatta their capital, and this is the tomb of Jam Unner, who was their first and founding ruler. [Image is a stitch of 4 photographs] - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A brick tomb of the Samma royal family members. Samma were the first dynasty who made Thatta their capital, and this is the tomb of Jam Unner, who was their first and founding ruler. [Image is a stitch of 4 photographs] - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
Two different kinds of tombs of the same dynasty belonging to different rulers. The Jam Tamachi grave [left] has an umbrella type dome with yellow stone carved pillars. Tamachi was the son of Jam Unner and the second ruler of the Samma dynasty. Jam Nindo, whose tomb is on the right - was the second last. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
Two different kinds of tombs of the same dynasty belonging to different rulers. The Jam Tamachi grave [left] has an umbrella type dome with yellow stone carved pillars. Tamachi was the son of Jam Unner and the second ruler of the Samma dynasty. Jam Nindo, whose tomb is on the right - was the second last. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
A view of a classical triple-mehrab on the tomb's western wall. The tomb architecture has  borrowed decorative motifs from the Hindu art of temple building, especially from Jainism, but also combines these with Islamic ones like the Meharab and the carving of Quranic verses using different motifs. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
A view of a classical triple-mehrab on the tomb's western wall. The tomb architecture has borrowed decorative motifs from the Hindu art of temple building, especially from Jainism, but also combines these with Islamic ones like the Meharab and the carving of Quranic verses using different motifs. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
A partial view of the front ornamented wall of the tomb. Here too we see the basic design derived from Jain temple art but it is modified with the Islamic mehrab. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A partial view of the front ornamented wall of the tomb. Here too we see the basic design derived from Jain temple art but it is modified with the Islamic mehrab. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
Main entrance of the Jam Nindo (or Jam Nizamuddin) tomb built in 1509. The tomb was built using yellow Jodhpuri stone imported from Indian Gujrat. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
Main entrance of the Jam Nindo (or Jam Nizamuddin) tomb built in 1509. The tomb was built using yellow Jodhpuri stone imported from Indian Gujrat. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
An inner view of the western and southern wall of the Jam Nindo tomb. This tomb is also unique in its conceptions and detail of decoration. Brick masonry is common in Samma tombs, but this is the first attempt by the Sammas to build buildings with square stone bricks. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
An inner view of the western and southern wall of the Jam Nindo tomb. This tomb is also unique in its conceptions and detail of decoration. Brick masonry is common in Samma tombs, but this is the first attempt by the Sammas to build buildings with square stone bricks. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A detail of the decorations on the outer side of the Jam Nindo tomb. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A detail of the decorations on the outer side of the Jam Nindo tomb. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
An internal view of the dome-less tomb of Jam Nindo. Archealogist Dr. Ahmed Hassan Dani says that it is the only example of Sindhi-Islamic art in the whole subcontinent. [Image is a stitch of 4 photographs] - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
An internal view of the dome-less tomb of Jam Nindo. Archealogist Dr. Ahmed Hassan Dani says that it is the only example of Sindhi-Islamic art in the whole subcontinent. [Image is a stitch of 4 photographs] - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
The tomb of Isa Khan Tarkhan II, built on a stone carved platform. Isa Khan defeated the Arghuns in 1555 who only ruled briefly before being overthrown by the Tarkhans.  - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
The tomb of Isa Khan Tarkhan II, built on a stone carved platform. Isa Khan defeated the Arghuns in 1555 who only ruled briefly before being overthrown by the Tarkhans. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
Isa Khan II's tomb is a double story building with a carved pillared gallery. He died in 1565 after surpassing an age of 100. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
Isa Khan II's tomb is a double story building with a carved pillared gallery. He died in 1565 after surpassing an age of 100. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A view of the entrance from the inner side. This is a wall of the Isa Khan Tarkhan II tomb Pavilion. The tomb was built with yellow Jodhpuri stone, and has since suffered damages. Where the old, carved stones have fallen out, they have been replaced with plain new ones. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A view of the entrance from the inner side. This is a wall of the Isa Khan Tarkhan II tomb Pavilion. The tomb was built with yellow Jodhpuri stone, and has since suffered damages. Where the old, carved stones have fallen out, they have been replaced with plain new ones. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A general view of the Jamia Masjid ruin. This is the earliest mosque built in the Makli necropolis and was built in the Samma period during the 14th century. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A general view of the Jamia Masjid ruin. This is the earliest mosque built in the Makli necropolis and was built in the Samma period during the 14th century. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A couple of bats hang upside down in a crack on the mehrab wall, where "Allah" is written using plaster. This crack has only emerged it the last few years. The mosque was built by Samma ruler Jam Tamachi after he was released from captivity by Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq, the ruler of Delhi in 1388. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A couple of bats hang upside down in a crack on the mehrab wall, where "Allah" is written using plaster. This crack has only emerged it the last few years. The mosque was built by Samma ruler Jam Tamachi after he was released from captivity by Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq, the ruler of Delhi in 1388. - Photo by Nadir Siddiqi/Dawn.com
A simple grave on a platform, with a sign that says ?Mai Makli jo Qabar? - or the grave of Mai Makli. The grave is situated adjacent to the southern wall of the Jamia Mosque [Next Photo]. Makli means Little Mecca or Mecca-like; some relate it with a devout and pious woman "Mai Makli". It is believed that her prayers averted Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq's conquest of Thatta. He could only seize it three days after her death. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
A simple grave on a platform, with a sign that says ?Mai Makli jo Qabar? - or the grave of Mai Makli. The grave is situated adjacent to the southern wall of the Jamia Mosque [Next Photo]. Makli means Little Mecca or Mecca-like; some relate it with a devout and pious woman "Mai Makli". It is believed that her prayers averted Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq's conquest of Thatta. He could only seize it three days after her death. - Photo by Sara Faruqi/Dawn.com
An example of Arghun stone architecture on a grave that was built during the time of their rule in the first half of the sixteenth century. The Arghuns defeated the Sammas in 1520 to take over Lower Sindh for a few decades. - Photo by Mukhtar Azad/Dawn.com
An example of Arghun stone architecture on a grave that was built during the time of their rule in the first half of the sixteenth century. The Arghuns defeated the Sammas in 1520 to take over Lower Sindh for a few decades. - Photo by Mukhtar Azad/Dawn.com

Comments (25) (Closed)


Rmalik
Oct 02, 2012 07:55pm
The great heritage of the people of Pakistan is so impressive that they can go back to Indus valley civilization when even Hindus did not exit. It is their heritage and no one else. If they revive it, Pakistan will be the land of tourism of the whole world, be it Hindus, Buddhists, Mughals, Muslims, Persians and so many more I do not know . We can all find our ancestors belonging to the area of Pakistan that Pakistan itself does not know in the zeal of religious fanaticism. Wake up and glorify yourself in the proud heritage you are from. .
shanti maharaj
Oct 02, 2012 03:11pm
well offcourse, the world is aware of the indus as the bedrock of hindu civilization and budhhism. unfortunately, when pakistan got its independence they wished to remove anything and everything that reminded them of their hindu heritage. instead they identified themselves with saudi arabia. all cultures of the world celebrate its rich historical finds, instead pakistan throws it away. i am sure the young in todays generation will never know that their origins came from the bloodline of the rajputan hindus. even the founder of pakistan jinahs granparents were rajputan hindus. bhuttos mother was a hindu. such were the times of moghul rule convert or face the swdeath
salisha jameela baksh
Oct 02, 2012 03:25pm
this was the evil plot of the then british empire to divide and rule. so sad this plot was not seen by the leaders of the time. my grandmother was a muslim for little while and cries of the her childhood memories of the torture her parents underwent after partition to convert to islam in around the area of gumpti bazaar. very sad history. sometimes i cry when i remember the stories my grandmother would tell us. i sure wish as half muslim and half hindu the people of pakistan will remove their hatred of india
muzzy
Oct 02, 2012 06:19pm
WOW its awsome
Sandip
Oct 02, 2012 09:00am
Still begs the question what was need for partition of India?
Iftekhar Mahmood
Oct 03, 2012 08:24am
It is such an enchanting necropolis... I remember the awe I felt while visiting it about ten years ago. But the state of disrepair and neglect was quite disheartening. I was kind of taken aback by some of the strange comments from our Indian friends. Burial place has nothing to do with Hinduism anyway. What's the ruckus all about? Isn't the Indus valley civilization distinct from the Ganga-Jumna one. The two interacted sure... but had evolved on their own and both had been different from the southern civilization. This diversity makes the sub-continent so rich in culture, languages arts and crafts etc. One should not try to lump together such a vast land as the cradle of only one civilization. Undeniably, Influences also came from the great Persian and Roman empires. Most recently, Arabs and central Asians left their mark. A true melting pot, if there ever was one. Somewhere in the early nineties, Time magazine did an interesting cover story. It was the time when America had seriously started taking pride in its diversity and multiculturalism. Yes there was such a time before 9/11... sigh... Anyway, the story was about a software that made it possible to generate the features of a human face and it was made to predict how an american woman would look like in 2050. The picture that the cover carried could easily be mistaken for a Pakistani or Indian lady. The celebrated melting pot American experience had already been lived by the sub-continent. Let's take pride in it rather than creating frictions. The only hope is that India can have as big a heart as its size and allows the UN mandated plebiscite in Jammun & Kashmir. That is the only problem between us, but we have no statesmen around...
citoyen
Oct 02, 2012 09:26am
who lived there before the hindus?
Samad Chaudhry
Oct 02, 2012 07:27am
Our rulers are far too busy filling their own pockets then preserving the old and ancient history
sam
Oct 02, 2012 08:12am
<The monuments here also tell the story of external cultural influences in Lower Sindh, including Hindu Hindu's are the original people before Islam came.
Anwer
Oct 02, 2012 01:33pm
.... and I lived for many years just a 100kms away; most of us of Pakistani origin are not even aware of this wonderful and magnificent heritage. I have not visited Pakistan in over 10 years. It is wonderful to see this kind of work through your features at Dawn.... This amazing place will be on my itinerary when I visit a "safer & tolerant" Pakistan again with my wife and sons in the future
SAMRA
Oct 02, 2012 12:32pm
Such beautiful gems of my country. so much of history is kept in one of the places like Thatta. I have been to Dubai recently for holidays and learnt that Emirates history is just going back to late 1800 but still not only they have managed to preserve their little history but also they attract foreign tourists to visit those places. Bear in mind Dubai Oil Based GDP is only 7% whereas other sectors contribute mainly to the Emirate including Tourism. Q: Should not this be followed in our country?
Vinayak
Oct 03, 2012 12:46pm
Beautiful picture. Had heard about Thatta but never seen a picture.
Ahmed Sultan
Oct 03, 2012 12:42pm
There is one condition with that plebiscite proposed by UN that plebiscite can happen if PAK troops get out of J&K. If you are talking about plebiscite then you should know everything about it.
neena grant
Oct 03, 2012 09:32am
People from the Indus civilization, the Dravidians were not Hindus, but a very peaceful and well connected people - trading with Egypt and Sumer. Hardly any weapons are found. They were brilliant and built the first planned city in the world: Mohenjo Daro. Today we see them as Harijans, the ultimate pariah caste of India. Through thousands of years these people have been victimized and supressed by the brutal Hindu caste system. Looking at the way Muslims are living in India today, despite all the problems in our country, we are happy to not be a part of the caste system, but free citizens in our own country that will soon evolve to be Iqbals Pakistan and a good neighbor to India as well!
Shahid
Oct 03, 2012 06:35am
So what? I am an Indian Muslim, and I know perfectly well that my ancestors,as well as those of Pakistanis are Hindus. What difference does it make? We follow The Prophet Muhammad(s.a.w.) no........accept it just as we accept Hindu ancestors.....We are happy with Islam. Any problem?
raghu
Oct 03, 2012 05:42am
so it seems this thatta has a history since say 1300 funny
Naresh Sharma
Oct 03, 2012 05:32am
Dawn Plz dont remove it let the people of Pakistan understand what is Hinduism.. Hindu is not a religion... The word Hindu is derived (through Persian) from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent, which is first mentioned in the Rig Veda.[11][12][13] The word Hindu was borrowed into European languages from the Arabic term al-Hind, referring to the land of the people who live across the River Indus,[14] itself from the Persian term Hind?, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindust?n emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus".[15] The term Hinduism also occurs sporadically in Sanskrit texts such as the later Rajataranginis of Kashmir (Hinduka, c. 1450), some 16th-18th century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts, including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata, usually to contrast Hindus with Yavanas or Mlecchas.[16] It was only towards the end of the 18th century that the European merchants and colonists referred collectively to the followers of Indian religions as Hindus. The term Hinduism was introduced into the English language in the 19th century to denote the religious, philosophical, and cultural traditions native to India.. Our religion is Sanatan Dharma... Sanatana Dharma is by its very essence a term that is devoid of sectarian leanings or ideological divisions. This is evident by the very term itself. The two words, "Sanatana Dharma", come from the ancient Sanskrit language. "Sanatana" is a Sanskrit word that denotes that which which is Anadi (beginningless), Anantha (endless) and does not cease to be, that which is eternal and everlasting. With its rich connotations, Dharma is not translatable to any other language. Dharma is from dhri, meaning to hold together, to sustain. Its approximate meaning is "Natural Law," or those principles of reality which are inherent in the very nature and design of the universe. Thus the term Sanatana Dharma can be roughly translated to mean "the natural, ancient and eternal way."
JaiRam
Oct 03, 2012 04:24am
Wow. I could not stop looking at the pictures again and again. I wish if there was a way, that we could see more of such in Pakistan. These structure should not only be preserved for future generations but also be opened as a tourist attraction (I am well aware of the current conditions which would not let such initiatives be materialized). I thank dawn for bringing out them to us, who might never get a chance to view them in real. I would also like to rquest dawn to let us have more of these. Thatta really looks a beautiful and culturally enriched place.
EQ8Rhomes
Oct 03, 2012 02:08am
The early people of South Asia were most likely African migrants and their descendants are the darker skinned people of South India, who were pushed out by the Central Asian invaders from the Indus settlements. Hindusim came into being naturally from the observations of the earth and the skies by intellectuals who offered their explanations of origins, life, living, death, and the cycles of Nature. In that we may say it is an organic religion, with some Greek influence such as Dyaus (Zeus ), Dyaus Pita (Zeus Pater) and matters of Mahabharata and the wheeled chariots of war. To me, the most important factor is that Hinduism has its essential roots in South Asia where it portrays the organic truths about existence in the context of the land and life there. Hinduism is not based totally on lands, life in foreign lands, and foreign ideas of existence. For example, the West borrowed totally from the Middle East its Judeo-Christian ideology and used it to invade and exploit the world. Muslims borrowed wholly from that Middle Eastern ideologies from which the Judaic culture and Ideology sprang. Hence, the Abrahamic religious ideologies. Finally, Muslims are encouraged not to delve into the pre-Islamic past beyond what is to them, Frightful "idol worship" and the Battle of the Trenches near Mecca, and the Prophet's fright to Medina. Study of pre-Islamic cultures of the M.E. would, I think, ground Muslims in their own organic cultures and ideologies and remove the constant fear of the shadows and ideas shared by Jews and Christians. The competition to prove which of the three Abrahamic religions is the TRUE one is a major problem to the world. M.E. cultures had life and history before the Roman Calendar and people must look back to know their origins and not be consumed by yesterday's foreign theologies which cause many to feel that they are in a state of limbo as to what truths they ancestors intellectuals to help develop and refine their cultures and thinking. the acts of destroying ancient cultural artifacts and representations of life, is a modernist idea to remove all memories of the past in a strange convulsion to glorify the newer ideologies as if they were ALWAYS WITH US. It is a fraud against oneself, a faked amnesia. If some people could, they would blow away the Pharaonic images, but they like the fame and money that they bring. Like the Indus Civilization, they are reminders of our origins, which we smash and loot at our own peril.
Chaigram
Oct 02, 2012 07:02pm
Congratulations to Dawn for this wonderful article. As a child and also as student the city of Thatta always fascinated me. Thank you.
Desicanuk
Oct 02, 2012 06:31pm
Brits are a convenient scapegoat for India and Pakistanis.We desis should really take the blame.We alone are the authors of our misfortune.Our leaders lacked any foresight and failed to see what partition would entail.In 1857 we butchered British women and children.In 1947 we butchered each other.Brits have the last laugh - for they got their revenge.Have we learnt anything from our history?Looks like we are forever condemned to repeat it.Need I say more
Shivam Dadwal
Oct 02, 2012 10:11am
Beautiful architecture. Must be saved from getting ruined.
Babloo
Oct 02, 2012 12:18pm
This looks like a Hindu Temple
Sohil Khan
Oct 02, 2012 02:00pm
Hindus are the first people who ever lived in this region. 90% of current Pakistani Muslims's forefathers are Hindus
neena grant
Oct 02, 2012 10:12pm
Get out of your hindu nationalism. You guys are really a threat to peace on the sub-continent! If you think so badly about Pakistanis then stop surfing on their fora and leave them alone!!