A stagnant economy

Published May 4, 2021
The writer is a political economist.
The writer is a political economist.

A REVIEW of our economic data for this century triggers utter gloom. On almost all key indicators, we have either regressed or stagnated even while Bangladesh and India have made rapid progress.

We must grow at six to seven per cent annually to absorb our youth bulge, but have done so only twice (2003-2005) this century. However, inflation has exceeded that level in 12 years, piling misery on the poor. The industrial sector usually absorbs the youth bulge. Unfortunately, it has stagnated at around 20pc of GDP for decades while the service sector has grown from around 50pc to 60pc. Many poorer states achieve growth via exports. Our exports have fallen from 15pc of GDP in 2003 to around 10pc. FDI aids growth too. But it has fallen from 3.7pc of GDP in 2007 to 1pc.

Sadly, we only attract high FDI via close ties with big powers like the US or China, while our neighbours attract it even without such ties. Around 80pc of FDI since 2000 has gone into non-exportable sectors that don’t directly give foreign earnings. Overall, investment has fallen from 16.8pc of GDP in 2005-2006 to 13pc now. But consumption constitutes nearly 75pc of GDP, which is very high compared to the fast-growing Asian Tigers.

The issues of slow growth are upped by external and fiscal deficits. We had a current account surplus only three times this century but high deficits exceeding 3pc of GDP six times. The external deficit is kept in check by remittances, the only key indicator that has grown from less than 2pc of GDP in 2000 to 8pc. But while FDI and exports boost industry, remittances largely fuel high consumption and reflect family separation.

Only remittances show a positive trend.

A fiscal deficit occurs annually and has exceeded 5pc of GDP in most years since 2000. The tax-to-GDP ratio has fallen from 13pc in 1990s to 10pc. Health and education expenses are stagnant at around 3pc and 1pc of GDP. Debt servicing as a ratio of tax revenues has steadily increased. The defence outlays-to-GDP ratio has fallen but remains among the highest globally. Public debt has increased from around 60pc of GDP in 2010 to nearly 90pc.

Thus, only remittances show a positive trend. The picture is bleakest under the PTI as outcomes fall below even the modest pre-2018 levels on almost every major indicator. Even worse, the peaks early this century were achieved via close but unreliable US ties, which gave long-term problems of terrorism that wiped out fleeting economic gains. The last century was no better, with stagnancy in the 1950s, 1970s and 1990s and short-term growth in the 1960s and 1980s fed by US ties that gave rise to high inequity, the 1971 tragedy and long-term extremism in the 1980s.

So why can’t we even match our neighbours with similar history, location, culture etc? Many may point to corruption and dynastic politics. But our neighbours have those too. Bad policies by both military and civilian regimes seem a more plausible cause. Every few months, some global or national institution proudly trots out a glossy report providing grandiose policy options. But they mostly gather dust. So the issue is not ignorance of correct policies. The puzzle is why can’t the state adopt good policies and the private sector good strategies for growth?

This reflects overall societal incompetence in the public and private sectors compared even with our neighbours. A comparison with them shows that the cause is not corruption and dynastic politics, which they also have, but our evolution as a security state under the vice-like grip of our deep state. This evolution has produced political instability as civilian prime ministers never complete terms and must share power with the defence establishment. The perverse patronage politics we see today was deliberately created by Gen Zia to control politics.

Social retrogression as fake dogma has been unleashed by certain elements to control society, resulting in extremism, docility, risk aversion, lack of innovation and a general societal dumbing down. We suffer from foreign dependence in currying favours with big powers to checkmate India. Meanwhile, big businesses run by the security establishment allegedly benefit generously from state favours while the state thrives on external largesse and the private sector on state largesse instead of quality and innovation. All this chokes economic vitality. A stagnant economy thus reflects a stagnant society.

We are now told we will pivot from geo-security to geoeconomics. Alas, those trained in security cannot deliver on economy. Those part of the problem can’t be part of the solution. Also the massive damage inflicted on the social and political fabric of society over 40 years will take ages to undo even if the establishment loosens its grip. Thus, anyone expecting rapid progress in Pakistan will be disappointed.

The writer is a political economist.


Twitter: @NiazMurtaza2

Published in Dawn, May 4th, 2021



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