KARACHI: For over 11 years relatives of people who disappeared in the murk of a nationalist campaign in Baloc­histan have gathered outside the Quetta Press Club wanting to know who took away their fathers, husbands and sons.

The daily sit-in protest in Quetta began on June 28, 2009 after a doctor, Deen Mohammad, was abducted by unknown men.

Relatives suspect the doctor, like many other missing Baloch people, was snatched by law enforcement agencies hunting those who for decades have waged a campaign for greater autonomy or independence.

Sometimes less than a dozen join the daily protest, other days many more, but the doctor’s two daughters have been among the regulars since they were eight and ten years old.

“Our little hands were holding pictures of our father back then; now we have grown up and we still have no clue if he is alive,” Sammi Baloch, now 21, told Reuters by telephone from Quetta.

An aged activist says there’s hardly a home in Balochistan that hasn’t had a loved one picked up

Even when the weather is too extreme in Quetta to hold protest, a sit-in is observed by the Balochs in front of the press club in Karachi.

The campaign in Balochistan has sometimes waned and sometimes intensified over the years.

But for all the durability of the Baloch struggle, it has seldom drawn international attention. It grabbed headlines however, in late June when a group of young Baloch militants made an armed attack on the Pakistan Stock Exchange in Karachi.

On Tuesday, three soldiers lost their lives and eight were wounded in an area known for attacks by Baloch nationalists. But beyond giving the casualty toll, the veil of secrecy over the problem is seldom lifted.

Multiple calls, texts and emails to the federal human rights ministry, the military and Balochistan’s government, seeking comment for this report went unanswered. The military did issue a statement last year sympathising with families of missing Balochs, while saying that some may have joined militant groups and not every person missing is attributable to the state.

Pakistan believes India has been fanning militancy in Balochistan.

Last month, the Balochistan National Party-Mengal (BNP-M) quit Prime Minister Imran Khan’s parliamentary bloc, frustrated by unfulfilled promises to address grievances including the festering issue of the disappeared.

When he led the BNP-M into an alliance with Mr Khan’s coalition two years ago, Akhtar Mengal gave the government a list of 5,128 missing persons.

Since then over 450 of the people on the list have been found or returned to their families, but during the same period Mengal says another 1,800 were reported to have disappeared.

“If you cannot recover people, at least stop disappearing more people,” said Mengal.

Another Baloch party — set up in the months prior to the 2018 elections — is in a coalition with Prime Minister Khan’s party at both federal and provincial levels. Balochistan Awami Party (BAP) Senator Anwar-ul-Haq Kakar told Reuters the numbers of the missing are “exaggerated”.

But, Mama Qadeer, who heads a group called Voice for Baloch Missing Persons, keeps his own count.

“In last six months, the number of Baloch missing persons has risen,” he told Reuters by telephone. His son disappeared a decade ago.

In February last year, Qadeer’s group handed a list of 500 missing to provincial officials. Since then nearly 300 have been returned to their homes, but 87 others disappeared in the first half of this year, according to the group.

China raises stakes

A federal commission set up nine years ago listed 6,506 cases of enforced disappearances nationwide by the end of 2019. Most came from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Only 472 were registered from Balochistan. Advocacy groups claim Balochistan’s number is far higher, pointing to difficulty in having cases accepted by the commission.

“There’s hardly a home in Balochistan that hasn’t had a relative or loved one picked up,” said Mohammad Ali Talpur, an aged activist.

The problem has a long, complex history, but since that time the stakes have risen as Balochistan’s wealth of copper, gold, gas and coal deposits caught China’s eye.

The prospects of Pakistan’s most reliable ally pouring in money excited successive governments, while fuelling Baloch resentment over how little would come their way.

Militants have frequently targeted Chinese construction projects in Gwadar, a port on the Balochistan coast near the entrance to the strategically-important Gulf.

And in 2018, the banned Balochistan Liberation Army launched an assault on the Chinese consulate in Karachi, killing four police and civilians.

It was the most high-profile attack by the group until June 29 this year when it attacked the stock exchange, again killing four people.

The attack came a day after hundreds of relatives of missing Balochs gathered in Quetta to mark the four thousandth day of their protest since the disappearance of Dr Deen Mohammad.

Published in Dawn, July 20th, 2020

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