The quotients of intelligence

Published December 9, 2023
Illustration by Aamnah Arshad
Illustration by Aamnah Arshad

Human intelligence is a vast topic with various theories and research determining different types and levels of intelligence. When it comes to intelligence, we’ve all heard of the IQ, which stands for intelligence quotient, and studied books to improve it, as it is most widely evaluated in every admission or employment test worldwide, including in Pakistan. IQ tests have been used to assess a person’s intelligence or academic aptitude. The higher a person’s test result, the more academically proficient and intelligent they are assumed to be. But do you know there are four other types of quotients to determine human ability and level of intelligence?

Intelligence is more than just getting good grades in school, calculating specific amounts and numbers without a calculator, or knowing the history of Pakistan like the back of your hand. It is defined as a person’s ability to comprehend the world, think logically, and efficiently use knowledge, experiences, resources and emotions in all walks of life.

Recognising your potential, dominant quotient and intelligence type will help you be more successful and confident. Teachers and parents must be aware of different intelligence quotients to help improve their students and children’s overall personality rather than focusing on IQ over other levels of intelligence, because IQ isn’t the only level of intelligence; four more quotients determine a person’s level of intelligence.

Intelligence quotient (IQ)

A German psychologist William Stern created the term “intelligence quotient” (IQ) in the early twentieth century; efforts to quantify intelligence made a big step forward. Alfred Binet, a psychologist, created the first IQ tests to assist the French government in identifying kids who required more academic assistance. The actual cause of creating IQ tests has lost its meaning today, and IQ tests are taken to choose the best candidates and those who fail to perform well in tests aren’t offered admission or jobs in prestigious institutes.

The intelligence quotient (IQ) assesses a person’s cognitive abilities and potential. It is frequently used to predict academic success and employment performance. Your intelligence quotient (IQ) can be used to assess your comprehension and intellectual ability because you require IQ to answer math problems, memorise things and recall lessons. On a fundamental level, IQ counts. However, IQ tests do not address soft skills and potential, which can make or break a person’s success and longevity.

Furthermore, when evaluating a person based on test scores, we forget to consider how other characteristics, such as neurodiversity, learning style variances and mental or physical health issues, influence the test result. Many talented students perform poorly in tests or exhibit typical behaviours described by standard intelligence quotient metrics.

The emotional quotient (EQ)

The emotional quotient (EQ) assesses a person’s capacity to recognise and control their own emotions, as well as analyse the feelings of others. People with a high EQ are more effective in personal relationships and employment.

The emotional quotient (EQ) measures your capacity to maintain a positive attitude toward others, maintain peace with others, manage time, self-responsibility and respect boundaries of yourself and others. Most jobs today require soft skills, including cognitive abilities such as emotional intelligence.

The social quotient (SQ)

The social quotient (SQ) assesses a person’s ability to interact with others effectively. People with a high SQ are usually skilled at communication and networking and are often successful in professions like sales and marketing.

The ability of a person to build and maintain a healthy network of friends over time is determined by their social quotient (SQ). People with high EQ and SQ outperform those with a high IQ, but with low EQ and SQ. Most schools and educational institutions emphasise increasing IQ while ignoring EQ and SQ. A person with a high IQ can be hired by a person with a high EQ and SQ, despite having an ordinary IQ. Your EQ represents character, while your SQ represents charisma. Efforts to increase your SQ and EQ will be worthwhile for your personal and professional life.

The adversity quotient (AQ)

The adversity quotient (AQ) assesses an individual’s ability to cope with and overcome adversity. It determines how well a person can handle a problematic situation or failure. Those with a high AQ are thought to be more resilient and adaptive, and recover quickly from setbacks. They tend to be mentally strong with a never-give-up personality.

Adversity quotient assesses your mental toughness and capacity to bounce back from adversity without losing yourself. When problems emerge, AQ determines who will give up, abandon their family and fall into negativity traps such self-destructive behaviours.

Illustration by Sumbul
Illustration by Sumbul

The cognitive quotient (CQ)

CQ is a measure of how effectively someone can use their intelligence. IQ determines intelligence and knowledge, but does not indicate how well a person can use their intellect and instincts. CQ assesses how people use their intelligence, brainpower and expertise; how they demonstrate advanced problem-solving behaviours.

High CQ requires a less reactive approach to conflict resolution, such as taking a step back to analyse the big picture or viewing the situation from various angles.

People with high CQ are highly independent. They do not wait for others to provide assistance and solutions when faced with a challenge. They instead take the initiative and rely on their instincts to make the best decision for themselves and their team. They comprehend how their behaviours affect others and their goals. Even when making little judgments, they evaluate the overall influence of their work.

Parental influence

In Pakistan, it is normal practice to compare a child’s performance to that of their classmates, siblings and cousins. Constant comparisons result in criticism and judgemental statements from parents towards their children, shattering their self-esteem, self-confidence and potential for life. I’m curious why many parents don’t understand that even identical twins are born with different levels of intelligence, capability and potential. Instead of comparing or criticising their child for poor grades and pressuring them to be like someone else, parents should support and assist their children in improving their weak areas, spend quality time with them, and encourage their interests and potential.

Children should be introduced to various experiences, this all can aid in developing their IQ, EQ, SQ, AQ and CQ. Parents should encourage their children to explore, meet new people, face challenges and solve their problems. Children can learn to think critically, manage their emotions, navigate social settings and overcome challenges in this manner. These abilities will serve them well throughout their lives. Parents should not only focus on their children’s academics, but also on their children’s EQ, SQ, CQ and AQ development. This way, children can achieve success in all aspects of life.

A well-rounded education can make people more intelligent and better persons with unique personalities that outshine others. They will understand how to sympathise with others, communicate effectively, work under pressure and deal with challenging situations. All of these abilities are necessary in the practical world. Parents and educators should make efforts to broaden children’s horizons beyond academics.

Educational influence

From early childhood, children are judged, compared and pressured by their parents and teachers to perform well academically and achieve a position in class depending on the results of a specific exam. But is a piece of paper containing some logical and rational questions enough to judge, test and recognise an individual’s hidden potential, abilities and intelligence?

The sad reality is that in Pakistan, teachers and educational institutes want every student to perform in a similar manner and come up to their grading system, not knowing that every child has a different level of intelligence, which should be analysed and then treated the child according to their level of intelligence, not the benchmark which we have set.

No child is dumb, weak or an idiot; it’s all about how we encourage their interest, enhance their potential and polish their skills. Teachers and educational organisations must focus on developing all five quotients in their students. Each one is critical to success both inside and outside of the classroom.

While all five of these quotients are crucial, EQ, SQ and AQ are frequently seen as more important than IQ for life success, because they assess abilities more necessary for success in the practical world than IQ. The practical world is far more different from what we learn in schools, books and various theories. While having a high IQ benefits scoring good grades in written exams and other aspects of life, it is not the be-all and end-all. EQ, SQ, CQ and AQ are more significant. So make an effort to build all five quotients in your students!

The definition of success has been glamorised and polarised. Being successful does not always imply being the CEO of your own company or having a bank account with numerous figures. It refers to having a satisfied and peaceful life, and achieving the personal and professional growth goals you set for yourself. It consists of reaching a point where you are content and satisfied with your life, and by doing so, you will need to make wise decisions plan accordingly, know your weaknesses and strengths, and focus on your goals.

Each of these quotients has distinct advantages and can be beneficial in different ways. For example, someone with a high IQ may excel in problem-solving and critical thinking, but someone with a high EQ may excel at managing and controlling his emotions and empathising with others.

Understanding the different levels and types of intelligence and evaluating them in yourself can assist you in better understanding your strengths and weaknesses and how you might best serve others. It can also help you choose a career or education path that matches your abilities.

Published in Dawn, Young World, December 9th, 2023

Opinion

Editorial

Little respite
03 Mar, 2024

Little respite

IS inflation on its way out? The Consumer Price Index showed that inflation dropped to 23.1pc in February from ...
More slaughter
Updated 03 Mar, 2024

More slaughter

Israel’s extremist leaders are on an apocalyptic mission to ethnically cleanse Gaza.
Without VCs
03 Mar, 2024

Without VCs

THE delay in appointing vice chancellors across Pakistan’s universities has mushroomed into a crisis, with one...
Urgent challenge
Updated 02 Mar, 2024

Urgent challenge

The incoming finance team will have to prioritise economic decisions over political considerations and personal whims.
Contempt ruling
02 Mar, 2024

Contempt ruling

AN Islamabad High Court decision penalising the city’s deputy commissioner, a senior superintendent of police and ...
Streets of death
02 Mar, 2024

Streets of death

A LIFE without a sense of permanence is one aspect of a human crisis as complex as homelessness. But the fact that...