24 July, 2014 / Ramazan 25, 1435

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The APMSO logo.

Last Thursday we ran through the history behind the rise and fall of one of Pakistan’s largest student organisations, the Islami Jamiat Taleba (IJT).

This week we shall analyse the evolution of another controversial student outfit, the All Pakistan Mohajir Students Organisation (APMSO) – the student party that became the leading reason behind the decline and at times ouster of the IJT from Karachi’s major universities and colleges.

APMSO was formed at the University Of Karachi (KU) in 1978 by Altaf Hussain and Azeem Ahmed Tariq.

Husain and Tariq were both students at KU. Whereas Hussain till 1977 was a sympathiser of the Islami Jamiat Taleba (IJT) and played an active role in the movement against the Zulfikar Ali Bhutto regime that was orchestrated by the Jamat-i-Islami-led Pakistan National Alliance (PNA) in 1977, Tariq had flirted with an assortment of progressive student groups, including the Liberal Students Federation (LSF) that was headed by the current PPP Senator, Raza Rabbani at the KU in 1974.

Background

The most common account of the formation of the Muttahida (originally Mohajir) Qaumi Movement (MQM) and APMSO (that gave birth to the MQM) involves claims that it was a party conceived by the military dictatorship of General Ziaul Haq as a way to counterbalance the influence of certain political forces in Sindh. However, there is precious little clarity on the part of those political historians who toe this claim.

The Jamat-i-Islami (JI) was the first party to assert that the Zia regime had ‘created MQM’ to sideline JI’s influence in Karachi, even though between 1977 and 1984, the JI was openly supporting Zia.

In the late 1980s, Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) insisted that the MQM had been formed by Pakistan’s intelligence agencies to curb the PPP in Sindh, whereas Sindhi nationalist parties were of the view that MQM came into being at the behest of the Zia regime because of the way Sindhi nationalists had protested during the violent anti-Zia MRD movement in Sindh in 1983.

Nevertheless, if one were to summarise the collective thesis on the subject by academics who have written extensively on the MQM – such as Muhammad Wasim, Laurent Gayer and Oskar Vaarkaik – one can suggest that, though, there was some involvement of Zia’s agencies in the formation of the MQM (from APMSO), this experiment soon backfired when the MQM quickly spun out of the agencies’ orbit and became an aggressively independent entity.

The MQM’s arrival was not simply about a Mohajir-centric student organisation (APMSO) evolving into a mainstream political party born out of the political and economic frustrations of Mohajirs.

One can treat this as an immediate historical snippet, but it is certainly not the complete story. Academics specialising in the politics of Sindh, such as Amir Ali Chandio and Dr Tanvir Tahir, trace back the formation of the political Mohajir ethnicity way back to the 1960s.

Along with Punjabis, Mohajirs dominated Pakistan’s initial ruling and economic elite and thus both these communities continued to invest their political support in either federalist or religious parties or in military dictatorships.

Even those Mohajirs and Punjabis who joined outfits led by Sindhi, Pashtun, Bengali and Baloch nationalists (such as the National Awami Party (NAP), were largely part of the NAP’s Marxist wing that wanted to eschew politics of ethnicity and work towards a bourgeoisie-led socialist proletarian revolution.

But by the late 1960s, much of the country’s leftist tendencies were absorbed by the emergent PPP, and thus progressive non-Punjabi and non-Mohajir nationalists became more exclusivist.

Consequently, the first ever demand to separate Karachi from Sindh and recognise the Mohajirs as a distinct ethnicity actually came from an influential faction of the left-wing National Students Federation (NSF) that was associated with the NAP.

In 1969 Amir H. Kazmi, the head of his own faction of the Marxist NSF, was one of the first political leaders to raise the banner of Mohajir nationalism.

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Logo of the left-wing National Students Federation (NSF).

But few Mohajirs took the notion seriously, as they were still firmly imbedded in the concept of federalism and (like Punjabis) repulsed by ethnic nationalism.

However, as most of the left-leaning Punjabi and Sindhi intelligentsia and working classes and peasants invested their support in the federalist PPP, Mohajirs stuck to continue backing the federalist Islamic parties.

By the late 1960s Mohajirs had already begun to be dislodged from the Punjab-dominated ruling and economic elite with the gradual entry of the dictator Ayub-Khan-initiated entrance of the hardworking Pashtuns in the cherished fold.

The rise of the PPP-led by Z A. Bhutto further added to the sense of dread rising amongst Mohajirs. This erupted in the shape of 1972 ‘language riots’ in Karachi when the Bhutto regime reintroduced Sindhi in educational institutions and Mohajirs saw this as ‘an attack on Urdu.’

The aftermath of the riots saw the formation of a city government movement (CGM). Studded with Mohajir intellectuals and former Karachi-based leftist student leaders and some businessmen, it again called for Karachi to be separated from Sindh.

This movement too failed to take off until the 1978 formation of Altaf Hussain’s APMSO.

The much overlooked reason behind the APMSO’s evolution into giving birth to MQM (in 1984) is an economic one.

According to famous Sindhi scholar, Ibrahim Joyo, ‘Punjabi economic hegemony’ increased immensely in Sindh during the dictatorship of Ziaul Haq.

This situation had a negative impact on Karachi’s leading business communities (Memons, Gujaratis and other non-Punjabi business outfits).

In such a situation these communities formed the Maha Sindh (MS) — an organisation set up to protect the interests of Karachi’s Memon, Gujarati and Mohajir businessmen and traders.

According to celebrated Sindhi intellectual Khaliq Junejo, the MS then encouraged and financed the formation of a ‘street-strong’ Karachi-based party. This party became the MQM.

It can be argued that it is this aspect of the MQM’s formation that sometimes gets mistaken into meaning that the party came about with the help of the Zia regime.

This is so because the business communities in Karachi (stung by Bhutto’s nationalisation policies) were anti-Bhutto and had hailed his overthrow by Zia in 1977.

But by the early 1980s, they had been deluded by Zia’s supposedly ‘pro-Punjabi’ economic manoeuvres in Sindh and felt the need to have their own political outfit. MQM was the result. Beginnings

APMSO was formed in 1978 by Azeem Ahmed Tariq (a former member of the Liberal Students Federation) and Altaf Hussain (a former simpithaiser of the JI and IJT).

Both Altaf and Tariq came from lower middle-class Mohajir (Urdu speaking) families in Karachi.

Hussain was disappointed with the role the Jamat-i-Islami (JI) played after the PNA movement cornered Bhutto and paved the way for the General Ziaul Haq military coup in July 1977.

Hussain in his autobiography, ‘My Life’ claims that he criticised JI for joining the Zia regime and then accused the party of exploiting the Mohajirs of Sindh (especially Karachi) who had been supporting JI ever since the 1950s.

A number of ethnic-nationalist student groups had emerged in educational institutions in the 1970s, especially in Karachi, and Hussain thought that the Mohajir youth were being alienated in an environment where Sindhi, Baloch and Pushtun students were asserting themselves through their respective organisations.

Fearing that the Mohajirs will be wiped out if they did not organise themselves as a separate ethnic group, Hussain launched the All Pakistan Mohajir Students Organization (APMSO).

Altaf_Hussain_2003-apmso-25

Azeem Ahmed Tariq (L) and Altaf Hussain (R ) share a quick meal at the Karachi University in 1976.

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The launching of the APMSO outside the Arts Lobby at the Karachi University, June 1978.

APMSO’s early membership involved a sprinkling of former IJT members and politically neutral students (all Mohajir).

In 1981, APMSO decided to join the United Students Movement (USM) – an anti-IJT/anti-Zia alliance of left-wing and progressive ethnic-nationalist student groups at the KU such as the Baloch Students Organisation (BSO), Punjabi Students Association (PSA), Pakhtun Students Federation (PkSF) and Jeeay Sindh Students Federation (JSSF).

During the same period another left-wing anti-Zia/IJT student alliance had also sprung up at KU. It was called the Taleba Ittihad (Student Alliance) and was formed by the National Students Federation (NSF) and the Peoples Students Federation (PSF), the student-wing of the Pakistan Peoples Party.

APMSO did not perform well at the 1980 student union elections at KU, but managed to double the number of its votes as a loose component party of USM during the 1981 union elections.

By now APMSO had also started receiving Mohajir student activists from the left-wing (and rapidly disintegrating) NSF.

The arrival of former NSF members helped shift Altaf and Azeem’s rhetoric further to the left.

In a 1981 speech, Hussain described APMSO as a progressive and secular student party working against ‘Punjab’s hegemony in Pakistan’s politics and economics’ and against the ‘mullah-feudal nexus.’

Hussain had already been arrested (in 1979) by the police for allegedly burning the Pakistani flag to protest against the supposed ill-treatment matted out to the Mohajirs by the Punjabi ruling elite.

Altaf_Hussain_2003-apmso-2

Altaf Hussain with members of the APMSO outside a Military Court where he was charged for allegedly burning a Pakistani flag in 1979. He denied the allegations.

Perturbed by the rapid growth in the membership of the APMSO, the fundamentalist IJT went on the offensive against it, especially at the KU.

It barred the entry of APMSO leaders from KU in 1982 and also attacked APMSO members.

IJT had been enjoying the majority of the Mohajir students’ votes in student union elections in Karachi across the 1970s, but now saw the growth of APMSO as a threat to IJT’s chances of retaining Karachi’s major student unions. What’s more, the APMSO had already joined an anti-IJT alliance, the USM.

APMSO members were ‘expelled’ from the KU by IJT at a time when IJT was involved in a tense electoral and armed tussle with progressive student groups across Karachi’s colleges and universities.

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Altaf Hussain with APMSO activists on a Karachi University bus, 1978.

APMSO moved its operations to the Mohajir majority areas in Karachi (mohallahs), and in 1984 the senior members of the outfit launched the Mohajir Qaumi Movement (MQM) – an ethnic Mohajir party that was to serve as the senior partner of the APMSO.

Altaf_Hussain_2003-apmso

Altaf Hussain shaking hands with APMSO member, Farooq Sattar, at the Karachi University in 1981. Sattar today is a leading member of the MQM and a Minister in the current PPP-led collation government in Sindh and at the centre.

APMSO was radicalised when in 1985-86 the first (of the many) major clashes took place between Karachi’s Mohajir and Pushtun communities.

The Pushtuns were supported by the Pushtun speaking Afghan refugees who had poured into Pakistan during the US-Saudi funded Islamic Muhajideen insurgency against Soviet and Afghan militaries in the Soviet-occupied Afghanistan.

Many of these refugees arrived in Karachi with sophisticated weapons and drugs.

The sudden growth in the population of Karachi began putting great pressure on the city’s infrastructural resources and also triggered a two-fold growth in the crime rate.

The simmering tension between the Mohajir community and the Pushtuns erupted in widespread violence when a Mohajir college student, Bushra Zaidi, was crushed by a speeding mini-bus that was being driven by a Pushtun.

College and school students poured out onto the streets to protest. The protests soon culminated into clashes between the students and the police and ultimately between the Mohajirs and the Pushtuns.

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DAWN photo of female college students protesting against Bushra Zaidi’s death, April 1985.

Video of Altaf Hussain speaking during MQM’s first major convention at Nishtar Park in Karachi, 1986.

Faced by the superior firepower brought in by Afghan refugees, MQM dispatched a delegation of APMSO members to Hyderabad to meet a militant group from the Sindhi separatist student organisation, the JSSF.

Though Sindhi nationalists had been campaigning against Mohajirs ever since 1950s (accusing them of treating the Sindhis like ‘Red Indians’), Altaf began warming up to JSSF’s mentor and figurehead, Sindhi scholar, GM Syed.

APMSO were given some firearms by PSF in the early 1980s, it was JSSF that sold the APMSO its first large cache of AK-47s that were then used to tame the heavily armed IJT in 1987 and 1988, eventually breaking IJT’s hold at KU and in various other state-owned campuses in Karachi.

After the violent end of the Ziaul Haq dictatorship in 1988, MQM swept the 1988 elections in Karachi and got into a ruling alliance with the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) at the centre and in Sindh. But soon, both the parties’ student units were headed for a clash.

The tussle began as a turf war in universities and colleges of Karachi where IJT’s hold had weakened and where both APMSO and the PPP’s student wing, the Peoples Students Federation (PSF), moved in to claim the space left behind a retreating IJT.

Student unions that had been banned by Zia in 1984, were revived by the first Benazir regime. But student union elections were only held in the Punjab, even though elections did take place in some colleges of Karachi and were mostly swept by APMSO candidates followed by PSF.

But lacking the chance to settle political differences through the ballot, clashes broke out between APMSO and PSF in the city’s major universities.

The clashes between the two student groups became so intense that the APMSO formed special militant units, Nadeem Commandos and Black Tigers.

The Black Tigers were initially created to check dissenters within the MQM.

PSF retaliated with its Karachi President, Najeeb Ahmed (a KU student), organising militant units inside the PSF.

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PSF’s Karachi President, Najeeb Ahmed speaking at a PSF meeting at a college in Karachi, 1988.

Dozens of students from both sides lost their lives and in 1990, the clashes ultimately began straining the PPP-MQM alliance.

MQM resigned from the government (of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto) and joined the opposition.

The clashes came to a sudden halt when an armed group youth allegedly belonging to the Black Tigers assassinated PSF’s Karachi chief, Najeeb Ahmed (in late 1989), and by early 1990s, Benazir Bhutto’s first government fell (dismissed by the President).

Turmoil

APMSO and MQM ruled supreme in Karachi during the early part of the first Nawaz Sharif government (1991-93), but certain acts of violence against some army personnel stationed in Karachi by APMSO boys led the military to begin a ‘clean-up operation’ in Sindh (1992).

Though the military and Prime Minister Sharif claimed that the operation was aimed against the dacoits (highway robbers) of Sindh, the operation’s main thrust was always directed towards MQM/APMSO’s militancy and alleged ‘criminality.’

Karachi-1993

A 1992 newspaper photo of a group of APMSO activists gunned down by the police, allegedly during a ‘fake encounter’ in which APMSO youth were arrested by the police and then asked to run before being shot in the back.

By the time Benazir was reelected in 1993, the military had handed over the proceedings of the ongoing operation to the police and paramilitary forces in Karachi (the Rangers).

The operation was aggressively led by Benazir’s interior minister, Naseerullah Babar.

Gruesome acts of violence were committed by both the sides and the regime also used extra-judicial ways to eliminate the militant backbone of the MQM.

Dozens of policemen were slaughtered by MQM/APMSO militants, but hundreds of MQM/APMSO activists were also put to death in the most brutal manner.

In 1992-93, when an anti-Altaf faction of MQM (MQM-Haqiqi) emerged (backed by the military intelligence), Altaf Husain escaped to London and Azeem Ahmed Tariq was assassinated.

By 1996, leaders of the Nadeem Commandos and Black Tigers were also eliminated.

The operation only came to an end when through a military coup General Parvez Musharraf toppled Nawaz Sharif’s second government in October 1999.

The leveling

In 1998 MQM and APMSO changed the word Mohajir in their names to ‘muttahida’ (united) to suggest that they were no more a Mohajir ethnic party. It now began explaining itself as a secular, centralist national party.

In 2002, MQM became any ally of the Musharraf dictatorship and a new crop of leaders, both in MQM and APMSO, began the process of rebuilding the two organisations.

Altaf still presided over both the outfits as chief (from London).

APMSO also began regenerating its militant wing. This wing came into play during the 2007 anti-Musharraf Lawyers Movement (which, MQM being a Musharraf ally was against).

MQM and APMSO were accused by anti-Musharraf parties and the media for instigating violence on the streets of Karachi when Chief Justice of Pakistan (CJP) Iftikhar Chaudhry (who had been dismissed by Musharraf) arrived to hold a lawyers’ rally in Karachi.

In May 2007, fierce gun battles erupted on the streets of Karachi between APMSO militants and armed men belonging to the youth wings of Awami National Party, Jamat-i-Islami and Pakistan Peoples Party.

The violence began when MQM/APMSO gunmen allegedly fired upon anti-Musharraf/pro-CJP rallies that were moving towards the airport to receive the ousted CJP.

Dozens of people were killed in the ensuing gun battles and riots.

TV grab

A montage of three different but related events that were taking place on May 12, 2007. On top an APMSO activist in Karachi throws a stone at a pro-CJP rally as a bus burns in the background; on bottom left, former military ruler General Musharraf waves to a ‘hired’ crowd at a rally in Islamabad; and on bottom right, Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry (who was fired by Musharraf on corruption charges), arrives at the Karachi airport. The violence in the city forced him to return to Islamabad.

After the 2008 elections MQM joined the PPP-led coalition government along with the Pushtun nationalist party the ANP.

But this time around truce between the three parties’ student-wings has held on campuses of Karachi. However the more militant members of the wings that got involved in street crimes and were initially used as muscle by the three parties, many of them went ‘rouge’ and have gotten involved in vicious battles of turf in the city targeting each another to control the lucrative land scams and bhatta (extortion) business.

All three parties, the PPP, MQM and ANP are now struggling to reign in these ‘rouge elements.’

Nevertheless, the APMSO today continues to be the dominant political student organisation in Karachi’s state-owned colleges and universities.

And though armed, it does not contain any special militant units like the ones it bred in the 1980s and 1990s (Black Tigers and Nadeem Commandos).

A number of former APMSO leaders have now gone on to become leading members of the MQM.

Bibliography: Hussain, Altaf: My Life’s Journey (Oxford, 2011); Talbot, Ian: Pakistan: A Modern History (Palgrave Press, 1998); Verkaaik, Oskar: Migrants & Militants (Princeton University Press, 2004); Gayer, Laurent: Guns, Slums & Yellow Devils (Cambridge, 2007); Waseem, Muhammad: Ethnic Conflict in Pakistan: A Case of MQM (Pakistan Development Review, 1996).

 


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Nadeem F. Paracha is a cultural critic and senior columnist for Dawn Newspaper and Dawn.com

 

 


The views expressed by this blogger and in the following reader comments do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Dawn Media Group.


Nadeem F. Paracha is a cultural critic and senior columnist for Dawn Newspaper and Dawn.com


The views expressed by this blogger and in the following reader comments do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Dawn Media Group.

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Comments (179) (Closed)


Nadeem Khan
Aug 24, 2012 01:49am
MQM is part of Pakistani Society which is becoming intolerant day by day. I myself was a victim of systematic injustice done to Mohajirs where I was denied Jobs in Karachi because I hold a Karachi Domicile. The machoism shown by some Punjabis, Pathans, Balochis in Karachi against Mohajirs is also a reason of Formation of APMSO. I left Karachi & Pakistan in 1992. All said and done its our Country Pakistan in which we all need to live trust me its the best place to live. Lets act as a nation and build it as per the vision of Quaid-e-Azam. Long live Pakistan.
sami
Aug 23, 2012 08:11pm
Good piece of information collection about APMSO and MQM. Anyone can like or dislike any group/ party but please try to avoid hatred against anyone. If you think someone is criminal then try to improve the police or other agencies along with judiciary to get such elements punished. Of course there are criminal elements in all groups but MQM is considered "Terrorist or Killer Party" even there are more killings of workers or sympathizers of MQM compare to anyother party. Whats the reason? Only one: "How can these Babu-type people can start killing others - MANHOOD or SUPERIORITY COMPLEX". Similar mentality was against Bengalis too.
Kulsoom
Aug 24, 2012 11:27am
I fully agreed as I have seen by my own eyes.
Saqib Mohiuddin
Aug 24, 2012 07:59pm
Mufti sahab.... stop begging people to vote for PTI.... do something concrete for the people of Karachi and they will vote for your. But the problem is your leader is busy in sheltering Taliban and does not have time for anything else.
Mirza
Aug 23, 2012 10:39pm
So why people are giving vote to this party since eighties and even in 1993 where everything was under army and rangers. The truth is if I am getting employment, security, education for my off-spring, health facilities, city development than I am fine with what ever people say about that party. Name one party beside MQM who ever done anything for the people of Karachi except killing operations. Where were those atrocities, brutalities,extortion culture and torture cells during 2002 to 2007. The problem is of sharing power. PPP: Win seats from rural Sindh, get majority in Sindh Assembly and start dictating local karachi representatives how to run Karachi PML-N: Win in Punjab and in central and treat Karachi as Federally Administrative area....this will not going to happen anymore. If someone think that there is a need of change in Karachi that change should come with the wishes of Karachittes, not someone who lives in Badin or Larkana.
Mirza
Aug 23, 2012 09:19pm
People who migrated from Indian punjab to Pakistan side of Punjab had everything in common same language,same culture etc. Unfortunately that is not the case with people who were from Central India, Uttar pardesh (UP) or MP. So its very hard to understand this Mohajirism sitting in Punjab and being punjabi Mohajir. MQM has already scrap that word Mohajir as their is no Mecca for them to go back but what can one do if Ansars are not ready to accept Mohajirs as Ansars....lol Amazed to read that CIA has so much time to count armed militants of a third world country's political party....lol....Its the only party in the country who has complete electoral process on all levels. Its not like family politics where only party head and his or her family members dictate everything.
Pervez
Aug 25, 2012 02:18pm
I was in university at that time. Muhajirs were not given their legitimate rights. Altaf Hussain's demand was valid. Every ethnic minority was being represented by one party or another. Burger bacho! stop thinking that PTI will bring a revolution.
kaleem
Aug 23, 2012 10:34pm
AMAZING HISTORY LONG LIVE MQM LONG LIFE MQM FOUNDER LEADER ALTAF HUSSAON
Mazhar
Aug 23, 2012 10:31pm
APMSO is an student’s organization which is now providing its efforts and resources since 1978 now also has the credit of being the most popular student’s organization since then. APMSO is not a cave where a student becomes an inhuman politician but it is an environment where a public minded child learns how to make its personality worth-while and kind to the upcoming nation. Many leaders have arisen from the platform provided by Altaf Hussain bhai and now are working for the nation with great respect and dedication.
sb
Aug 23, 2012 09:33pm
Let me ask you this Monim - What did the Urdu speaking people do to the SIndhi speaking people?? It's ridiculous that you're complaining about someone else doing the exact same thing that you've done in the past!
sb
Aug 23, 2012 09:28pm
The difference is that the Bengalis were able to create their own future whereas the MQMwalas will continue to loot Sindh.
farhan
Aug 24, 2012 03:32am
for your memory , pakka qilla operation was done by sindh police and the rangers by the orders of then prime minister benazir Bhutto. if you read the charge sheet of then president ghulam ishaq khan against the benazir government while dissolving the Parliament , he mentioned the operation of pakka qilla where innocent men and women died and the atrocities were committed by the state.
Salman
Aug 27, 2012 06:45am
Pakistan is suffering because of their own dirty policies. Punjabi, sindhi, pashtun and balochi all claim for karachi but in reality urdu speaking are the main stake holders. They belong to educated white collar community ( not a single urdu speaking family related to Wadera and jagerdar family). Unfortunately, MQM had to faced all tribals who were sent from different provinces to fight with migrants. Mr. Paracha article should explain why there was no urduspeaking movement in KPK, Punjab, Baluchitan or interior Sindh.....answer is urdu speaking was fighting to save their kids and rights in region where the were living. Mr.Paracha should write about worst government system lead by Punjabi and Sindhi jagerdar. Unfortunately, Pakistan is suffering because of own policies by killing educated Urdu speaking youngsters and b Quota system. By reading this articles I can say that, Karachi should be separate from Sindh or from Pakistan so Urdu speaking can live peacefully. Pakistani talent was martyred in 1990ss and now there is generation gap. Unfortunately new generation cannot compete international talent.....game is over......
DR MOHAMMED HASNAIN SIDDIQUI AMRSH-LONDON UK
Aug 24, 2012 07:32pm
I HIGHLY APPRECIATE GOOD SERVICES BY ALL PAKISTAN MUHAJIR STUDENT ORGANISATION.
Muhammad
Aug 24, 2012 07:56pm
Name of MQM and its contours of outfit relate with word terrorism as like one can see in this column,None of violance had been showing in NFP previous writting about IJT
fus
Aug 24, 2012 07:52pm
@Karachiwala, l am at time shocked and surprised at these questions. After the partition the Urdu speaking migrants did not take over the lands of Sindhis , they got what Hindus had left, some may have even encroached on the lands, but of the Hindus who left and migrated not of native Sindh's. Sindhis were of big heart, there is no denying in that and they donated lands to settle Urdu speakig migrants to settle. But the major difference was in the level of education and literacy b/w the two communities, so what did you expect? Prove me that Urdu speaking migrants stole land from native sindhi. Infact, after 70s, sindhis by force took over lands of Urdu migrants living in interior Sind or force them to sell it all thanks to the hatred created by and free hand Bhutto Sahab gave to feudal of SIndh. After migration there was huge population of Urdu speakers in interior Sind but they were all forced to migrate to bigger cities. Unfortunately Sindhi themselves are their biggest enemy. Look at the History of Khairpur or Talpur, it is a pity that they have forgotten their grea thistory and have allowed brutal, illiterate feudal to rule over them, and easily blame Urdu speaking sindhis of their issues. Why dont you prove me that SIndhi are treated as Red Indians by Urdu speaking SIndhis? You dont want to get educated, don’t have GUTS to take on your land lord, but you are ok to push blame on Urdu speakers. Urdu speakers were educated enough to get ahead on merit, you cut their feet by introducing Quota, fine, then Auyb Khan took revenge on urdu speaking community just because they supported Fatima Jinnah in elections, fine, they had money and brain to start businesses, but then Bhutto Sahab nationalized all their businesses and licked out urdu speaking officers from govt. jobs, fine, they asked to at least have say in their say in city's development, Zia-ul-Haq introduced worst kind of local govt system and started punjabisation of the jobs in Karachi and Sind. You might not know this but GM Syed has offered to Urdu speaking intellectual and politicians that they can have a seperate province if they want to, but they said they are part of Sindh and don’t want to be separated. It is a pity that you really think that problem is MQM, why dont you dig deep and try to find the reason why MQM was created. In 60 years more money has been spent on interior then karachi but where did all that money go. Look at the diversity of Karachi and hyderabad, no other city come close to them not even Lahore or Islamabad. Urdu speaking community has always lived with open heart, it is only when you force them over the edge economically that they react and that is why MQM was created.
zatalib
Aug 24, 2012 07:53pm
It is such a sad story.. that young generation and students were used for political violence by ht political parties and still some political parties are using Arms to gain their control..
bands1997
Aug 24, 2012 08:01pm
You are just an ignorant person..... Visit karachi and see how many schools and even One University has be established by MQM. MQM has delivered what they have promised and their permissions permitted by the authorities.
Nabeela Alam
Aug 24, 2012 08:11pm
What are you talking about, Junaid Bhai? Did you even read the article. Text between para 43 till 47 is all about how IJT treated APMSO.
Muhammad Asif
Aug 24, 2012 11:48am
when and where did you hear this? please share with all of us. eagerly waiting...
Zeta
Aug 24, 2012 10:38am
Another biased piece from NFP.
Pellucid Entity
Aug 30, 2012 03:00pm
It was a police operation and it was Army who intervened lastly to end this opreation cum Massacr and genocide
abid khwaja
Aug 26, 2012 05:02am
Mohajir means who did hijra than why do people who belong to MQM call themseleves mohajir even though most of them are born in Slums of Karachi and never migrated from from anywhere ? Unless they are Biharis who migrated from Dhaka to Orangi town,Karachi during the days of Ayub Khan and after the fall of East Pakistan.
Mazhar
Aug 25, 2012 04:49pm
I as well belong to a Punjabi background and my whole family have been living in Karachi since I remember...We live in a area which is densely populated with Urdu speaking families with no fear and problem at all. I roam around the city without any problem. Not only me but 1000s of families are living here without any issue. My whole family and I have always voted for MQM as I don't think any political party can stand beside the vision MQM has for Pakistan. I am witness of their educated and liberal approach and I don't see any political party can meet the standards MQM has set. I am fully confident that MQM is the only solution for Pakistan. My next vote will also go for MQM...
Minhaj
Aug 25, 2012 02:15pm
Nadeem Paracha did not mention that APMSO was the first party to give the idea of middle class leadership. What about their dynamic leader Mustafa Kamal?
Ali
Aug 25, 2012 07:52am
I salute you for being such a brilliant human.
Shan Nasir
Aug 25, 2012 02:02pm
Hi! Your comment show your lack of knowledge. All parties are engaged in an armed conflict. If they don't own a militant wing, they use state machinery to oppress other party workers. You look like those enchanted PTI souls who have never interacted with the lower middle income segment of the society.
Arshid
Aug 25, 2012 06:00am
Politics of Chaos and Anarchy. As a youngman I personally saw the acts of terror in Karachi committed by various ethnic parties. Violence breeds voilence, the normal peace loving and hard working people of Karachi sufferred immensely while few Politicians from these ethnic parties made billions. I would strongly advise any true Pakistani to refrain from supporting any party that is built on ethnic principles. Although my family was living in UK, I moved back to Karachi and started a small but successful business but the violence in the late 1980s compelled me to rethink. After marriage, my wife (hails from Punjab) did not feel safe living in Karachi, let alone raising a family.I tried relocating to Punjab but could not adjust myself socially and in the end moved back to UK. Although both myself and my partner are from Punjabi background but we always considered ourselves to be nothing but Pakistanis and both of us speak Urdu at home.. Karachi was once a peace loving, tolerant and wonderful City and I have some wonderfull memories of this City. My social circle albeit was small but consisted of people from different ethnic backgrounds. I have not been to Karachi for almost 8 years, most of my friends have moved to either Canada or USA. Lost time I was there, I felt like a total stranger. We still have a family house in Karachi,, not sure why? I would love to see peace returning to Pakistan, including Karachi. We can only do this if we think like a Nation. Sadly Pakistan appears to be heading towards disintegration as everyone blames others for their misery. Rebuild Pakistan for your children and please stop this ethinc nonsense. Although I am not associated with any political party but I am often told by my relatives in Pakistan and most of overseas Pakistanis that this time around they are going to vote /support PTI. I am not trying to convince anyone to vote for any Political party as this is a matter of choice. But your vote will determine our Country's destiny; so use is wisely. Kind Regards Arshid
Kamal
Aug 25, 2012 05:52am
Wow, I guess you are one of those who got such an excellent memory and realizes the harsh reality of nature.
Syed Abid
Aug 24, 2012 02:25am
The evolution of APMSO is the hard work of poor and middle class students against the 2% Mafia - The day will come soon when APMSO will be successful against the hierarchical and dynastical political system of Pakistan
Shahab
Aug 24, 2012 02:27am
Nice article by Mr. Nadeem very truly said about MQM which emanated from APMSO a student political party led by Mr. Altaf Hussain who even in those days fought for the students to get admissions in KU put the popularity of APMSO sent shivering message to IJT who through them out of KU and thus MQM was founded.
Syed Abid
Aug 24, 2012 02:31am
APMSO is a thriving force and a real agent of change - It is also a nursery of poor and middle class present and future leadership of Pakistan - A real threat for Anti democratic , feudalistic and anti social elements and hence brutally targeted by 2% Mafia to derail and up root the poor and middle class students struggling against the rotten political and social system of Pakistani society.
Syed Abid
Aug 24, 2012 02:36am
APMSO is the mother of MQM and will keep producing the genuine material and flavor to guide the society towards a democratic, tolerant and contemporary Pakistan per the wishes and dreams of founder of Pakistan and martyrdom of independence movement
Syed Abid
Aug 24, 2012 02:39am
APMSO created by military agencies - How funny - And chairmen of APMSO is sentenced and jailed by military after creation - How funny one can be in his writing.
MOHAMMAD
Aug 24, 2012 02:49am
these politicisation of education should be banned. we are all one, ONE NATION, ONE BLOOD, ONE QURAN, ONE FAITH, ONE COUNTRY, ONE BLOOD, ONE BOOK AND ONE LEADER. NO VIOLENCE SIR IN OUR HOMELAND. PLEASE
Fazal Karim
Aug 24, 2012 12:22am
Apmso should delink itself from mahajir cause alone to all Pakistan cause and change its name to All Pakistan Mutahedda Students League as has been done in case of Mahajir Qaumi Movement.
Rashid
Aug 24, 2012 12:35am
NFP once again thanks for giving the new kids a history lesson, so accurate and so non bias
Usma Toronto
Aug 24, 2012 01:14am
In 1964,Gohar Ayub son of President Ayub launched a series of attacks on Muhajir bcs of their support for Fatima jinah,sister of founder of Pakistan, and Ayub took the capital to Islamabad causing more anger in already deprived nation,Not only that after 1972,Language riots were caused by the Passage of language bill by sindhi assembly declaring sindhi to be the provincial language....Why we avoid and not consider the consequences behind the birth of deprived groupes....Now they are in main stream politics yet still we have not changed the behaviour and attitude towards minorities.
Noreen
Aug 24, 2012 01:16am
Muhajirs fighting Jamatis?? Sau choohay kha kai billi haj ko chali !! Like we don’t know creation of Pakistan ( Pakistan ka matlab kia ..la illah ha ..) was through and through Muhajir show. Before they fear Hindu control and now they fear a strong hold of Punjabis and Pashtoons. No wonder overnight Altaf the cab driver became the voice of all Mohajirs . People who were in front lines of Pakistan’s movement must be considered as Maulvis, Oppurtunists and back stabbers because they were seeing their better future in Pakistan then in India and because they were prejudice against Hindus and other religions.. Go start a war with India, I guarantee you Punjabi army of Pakistan will not only loose as it always does, but this time Mohajir majority areas will declare freedom from Pakistan just like they declared freedom from Hindus.
Najam
Aug 24, 2012 01:46am
Most of the educated politicians in current Pakistani government are from MQM and I still believe that MQM is the most organized and comprehensive political party in Pakistan. I lived in Pakistan for 25 years before migrating to downunder and can tell you that I have seen myself the crackdown from Law enforcement agencies on innocent students and political workers in early and late 90’s. May Allah bless our Pakistan and help us to work diligently for the welfare of motherland.
Usma Toronto
Aug 24, 2012 01:18am
Mennnn those days were the demand of that time ...go now and visit Karachi .
Zaeem
Aug 23, 2012 11:07pm
Nice biography..........keep up the good work
Adil
Aug 23, 2012 11:12pm
For your information, Imran Khan also had troubles with Sarfaraz Nawaz and the latter continues to badmouth Khan.Should we call this rivalry 'Mianwali vs Lahore'?Plus why not you talk about rivalries between Shoaib Akhtar and Mohammad Asif (both Punjabis),Waqar Younis and Wasim Akram (both Punjabis) or any other rivalry that took place for past 20 years and tag the word prejudice with it.Plus do you know that Imran Khan included Mansoor Akhtar who was from Karachi in the cricket team and replace none other than his own cousin.The reason is that Khan believed in Merit. Only those will believe in the theory of Imran Khan hating Muhajirs who don't use any thinking of their own and accept every propaganda generated my MQM. I myself belong to an Urdu Speaking background but support PTI.And if Khan was such a racist person then why would an aged Muhajir named Wajihuddin Ahmed join PTI? Moreover, Jawed Miandad would enjoy different posts in PCB afterwards and let me tell you yet another interesting fact: Miandad was never a supporter of MQM but PPP.
Sameer
Aug 23, 2012 11:22pm
while everyone is trying to figure out whether nadeem is biased, let me make one thing clear, the kind of attrocities against Muhajir youth in Karachi where totally uncalled for... at one time, being 1) muhajir 2) young 3) on the street, certainly meant you were in big trouble. here is the bias, while a lot of our brothers think MQM is generated by Zia, the fact that MQM completely went against ZIA with full force proves the opposite. MQM did not need Zia from the start. the ingredients were already present. another bias, while a lot of punjabi anti-MQM extreme mentality thinks that Altaf is Anti-Pakistani, do not forget at one time Altaf Hussain was a soldier of Pakistan Army.
Jamal Syed
Aug 23, 2012 07:51pm
Khan sahab, do you really think that 17,000 kids were out there burning cars and throwing stone? And even if they were, did they deserve death sentence for that? It's just the number until it hits home Khan sahab. I wish you or anyone in Pakistan never has to go through what we went through during those years.
write2major@yahoo.com
Aug 23, 2012 11:30pm
The whole period of 1992-1999 is full of atrocities & genocide of Muhajir Community but author also could not highlight these facts, rather he has tried to put equal burden on MQM. The way how he has mentioned when MQM's leader Mr. Altaf Hussain had left for pilgrimage clearly shows his inner hatred towards MQM & Altaf Hussain. Bottom line is that one should think before writing any such thing that it will harm his own image if they proved guilty of racism & discrimination.
Walrasian
Aug 23, 2012 11:38pm
The only good deed APMSO did was to challenge and break the primacy of Islamist student parties at Karachi universities.
sb
Aug 23, 2012 09:35pm
Very good questions asked. Thank you.
Ajilala
Aug 24, 2012 10:57pm
Absolutely,I agree.20th is over and 21st have also completed more of a decade. It's high time for Karachihites in particular to follow old faces.it's a time to discipline yourselves and join the hands PTI at least for the generations to come.
Sabir Naqvi
Aug 27, 2012 09:48pm
APMSO/MQM is the same chain, most of the APMSO student cadre graduate on to become party members of MQM. Is APMSO involved in violence ? Not hard to find out if you look at the newspapers over the last 30 years, any student who has attended any Karachi intermediate college can attest to this, unfortunately from intermediate colleges to medical colleges to Karachi University, students do not have much choice but to join ' students group' for their own protection as gang violence is commonplace in Karachi campuses and APMSO has the 'muscle power' and an excellent organization to protect their men and women. Was APMSO pushed into 'gang violence' ? Unfortunately, not, it seems power corrupts and APMSO/MQM is not oblivious to it. Unfortunately with all the power and resources it yields APMSO/MQM over the last 30 years has run its constituents into a mess. Their is violence and crime rampant in-campus and off-campus. Cheating and fake degrees are common and educational standards falling all over. Professors and teachers if they don't have 'backing ' are harassed, threatened and pushed into allowing unfair means in exams. You would have thought that with all the good intentions of transforming into 'muttahida' they would change their style of doing business, alas not. Again power corrupts and once these students get taste of power, money and free pass in exams, it is hard turning around. I sincerely hope the APMSO/MQM figure out the right way forward and learn from their leader's positive experiences from living in UK and think about their constituents as sooner or later evolution would have its way and another group would emerge to challenge their hold.
Adil
Aug 24, 2012 10:52pm
I am an Urdu Speaking too and since you have mentioned about the incidents of 1964,let me tell you few facts from the history, which MQM with or without any intention has never shared with its workers and supporters. 1 )Ayub Khan is criticized by many columnists,intellects and historians in Pakistan due to all wrong decisions he took including the way he disrupted democratic system, all corruption charges, and his role when it comes to Dismemberment of Pakistan. Plus, his grandson Omar Ayub Khan was elected as a Member of the National Assembly as a candidate of PML (Q), a party/faction formed by Parvez Musharraf, a Muhajir. Why no action against Gohar Ayub(still alive) during that time or for the past three years when MQM kept on switching between opposition and coalition? 2) Not just citizens of Karachi but Jamat-e-Islami and NAP (the parent organization of ANP) had also supported Fatima Jinnah during Presidential elections.So not all Pashtuns suuported Ayub Khan back then. 3) I am not supporting Ayub Khan or Military dictatorship but If Khan was such a racist person then how come he played an important role in quickly settling 75,000 refugees from India. Please see the following clip and then decide Watch is esp. from 1:00 to 1:30 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cLgMJqFyQGs&feature=related My dad is a huge fan of both Ayub Khan and Parvez Musharraf. And I am in no way trying to justify any further military intervention in our politics even though I do admire many good works of the latest military dictator Musharraf too despite being a supporter of PTI. My intention was just to show how MQM distorts and tampers with historical facts just to get mileage,and shows everything in ethnic colour
Faisal Taquei
Aug 24, 2012 10:30pm
At least the PTI leader is in Pakistan unlike Altaf Hussain, who is running a mafia in Karachi. I am a so-called Mohajir!! As if we did not have enough divisions in Pakistan, Altaf Hussain created one further division! As a kid, I never knew why I was not being called a Pakistani within Pakistan, as opposed to Mohajir! Jaagoo!!!
Gohar
Aug 24, 2012 04:03am
Accurate depiction of the turn of events....one thing though; APMSO is given more credit for ousting IJT from KU than what actually transpired. In fact IJT lost KU student union elections in 1981-82 to USM of which APMSO was a not-so-significant element (as also pointed out in article). The President of KU Student Union then was a Punjabi guy.... some Cheema perhaps....who was later killed by IJT boys on campus while still President of Students Union
Adil
Aug 24, 2012 10:28pm
I myself hail from an Urdu Speaking family but support PTI.My parents have lived in the eras of 1960s and 70s and they had pleasant memories from their childhood and teenage.My relatives have also seen criminal activities and terror of MQM. They have lived during the times in 1980s and 90s, and have witnessed the darkest period in the history of Karachi. I am also against policies and actions of MQM, or more precisely criminal factors of MQM since the party and its student wing APMSO have also been having certain sincere and dedicated people who do work for the masses For middle class, I would like to say/remind that unlike few other ethnicities of Pakistan, Muhajir/Urdu Speaking community never had any element of feudal or feudalism in it...even those who hail from feudal backgrounds/families had left all their estates back their in India after migration.Therefore, MQM didn't have any feudal within its ranks after its formation. It was something that they would continue with, after they changed their name to Muttahida Qaumi Movement from Muhajir Qaumi Movement. But all thanks to dirty politics of Altaf Hussain and many other criminal elements of MQM, the party never got that much exposure as it would have got.Over the times, sometimes they talk about feudal system, and sometimes they play ethnic card even after using the name ''Muttahida''....so much contradictions and confusions. Do they think that people from other regions of Pakistan have got no proper education,there are just feudal societies beyond Karachi?One can even see hateful and arrogant remarks of many MQM supporters who use negative remarks against Punjabis and Pashtuns.Such comments are not hard to find either if one searches through YouTube,Facebook and Orkut.Altaf Hussain ignited feelings of anger and hatred among Urdu Speaking youth back in 1980s and now MQM's dark past continues to haunt them.How are they going to respond when shown their statements,manuals and speeches from the past where they clearly target Punjabis and other ethnicities AS A WHOLE. Perhaps, if Altaf Hussain leaves the scene for good, then we may get a better picture or environment in Karachi.Altaf and his gang have actually hijacked the entire city of Karachi and thousands of Urdu Speakings to date. I currently live in Canada and have analysed politics of Pakistan based on my own understanding and knowledge about human behaviour and Pakistan's history,demographcis and social fabric. Many people from Karachi have got a love and hate relationship with MQM where they have knowledge about all troubles and crimes perpetrated by the party, but at the end of the day they would still vote for MQM saying that they are after all "our own" unlike other parties. I myself have seen a couple of my relatives and family friends doing this. Such sort of thinking and complex need to be treated else they would continue to affect our morals and ethics. Everyone in Pakistan needs to think as a Pakistani first,and what's good for the nation as a whole.
Kamran Malik
Aug 23, 2012 07:56pm
NFP, you tried your best to give a impartial overview of APMSO, but overall your blog seems to pro MQM. Showed a soft corner for MQM. What about the atrocities,brutalities and extortion culture and torture cells... but i won't blaim you cuz if you have to live in Karachi you must show soft corne of this party...
Tariq
Aug 23, 2012 07:56pm
When political leaders behave like animals in the jungle what hope is there for sane society to evolve?
Monim
Aug 24, 2012 10:11pm
What Urdu speaking people did to Sindhis?? If you are referring to the jobs and economic situation in Sindh? I can tell you Yes Mohajirs did occupy most of the senior positions in govt jobs but it was only due to their skills an education and to help Pakistan run properly, ask yourself what was the educational level of people of Sindh in 1947? was it due to Mohajirs? I was so surprised to hear ZA Bhutto addressing the nation after the fall of Dacca as their ethnic back ground? This is short vision of the leaders which created more division among the provinces. What Bhutto has sown the seed of hatred, it has become a strong big tree and we are all reaping it? No one is a winner in this situation but its too late, just wait for the natural end!! Quota system: How would you explain that to bring a community up by blocking and choking the other community? The professionals which got in the medical colleges and engineering colleges based on quota are now showing ill skill and killing patients and looting the PIA. steel Mills and other organisations because they are good at that! However I can give you one example or more what Sindhis did to Karachiites in 1972, they attacked federal B area block number 17 and 19 to kill mohajirs. They came in trucks full of guns and kulharis to kill us, they came suddenly and was able to enter some houses but had to run away leaving behind their arms> How many incidents you can mention where Mohjirs attacked Sindh villages or areas in Karachi where they live? One more thing I can tell you when I went to Sindh assembly just to see the session, I was treated like an outsider, I felt like they are telling me what is my job there, I am a mohajir, I dont belong there!!! Its too late, no one can stop the country the direction and course its heading, because that is the course Pakistan's leaders have set for it, Just wait!!
Mirza
Aug 23, 2012 08:06pm
You can only cry on one day May 12, what about the attrocities and discrimination going on since 1947. Have some courage to accept the truth .....but how come ...... even you are writing this shameless comment as 'Anonymous'
Ali S
Aug 23, 2012 08:08pm
Well-researched historical piece as usual, but I don't agree with the last paragraph. I don't think the current political parties are doing anything to reign in their 'rogue elements' - it's all lip service and these so-called rogue elements are part and parcel of these parties' economics.
Karachi Wala
Aug 24, 2012 09:30pm
@ My Dear Fus, please cool down and read my questions / statements again.(I have more but have posted only 5) At this time I would like few other courageous readers to read what my questions / statements are, and try to answer each one by one. But before you do that, please read Mr. Fus's response.
Monim
Aug 23, 2012 08:30pm
That was their original plan to suppress Mohajirs and eradicate them slowly until MQM can into existence. They are still trying to achieve the same goal that is why there is so much killing in Karachi. One ethnic group is trying to protect its citizens and their rights. However I would suggest MQM to depart from PPP alliance!
Mirza
Aug 23, 2012 08:28pm
1) Why only MQM-APMSO forced Jung.....all the parties are doing this...and by the way Jung is not non-profit organization. 2) Name the journalists, name the newspaper and name the TV shows......where were you when under age teens ,severly totured and high on drugs, brought on same channels to confess what even a fully trained terrorist cannot do? I guess you were not in Karachi at that time. 3) Why non-MQM (mahajirs and others) who were silenced, not making hue and cry, why so called anti MQM channels and news paper not showing their bodies....why ? probably ratio is 1: 1000 4) Why forced contributors vote such a henious party in 1993 provincial elections when everthing was under army and rangers control? 5) The article is about APMSO, if you want to see the pics of non-APMSO students killed go to respective party websites and get the story, but who will decide who killed who?
Saqlain Jaffry
Aug 24, 2012 09:25pm
you are biased....
Iqbal
Aug 23, 2012 08:47pm
Both MQM and APMSO are one man shows. There is a huge leader ship gap in MQM and APMSO. Once AH is gone, they will disintegrate.
Saqlain Jaffry
Aug 24, 2012 09:22pm
Long Live Altaf Bhai Long Live Muhajir. I am <uhajir and follower of MQM. But i prefer only Muhajir Qaumi Movement, i dont follow the name of Mutahida Qaumi Movement.
Sam
Aug 24, 2012 10:26am
Incident happened before petrochemical funding into religious parties.
Sidra
Aug 24, 2012 10:25am
That is true.
Gulab Khan
Aug 23, 2012 08:52pm
Dawar put in his comments as: "Constitution of 1973 the malignancy of ‘constitutional divide of Sindh was promulgated in the form five types of domicile in four provinces. There is one Domicile in Punjab, one in Balochistan , one in Khayber Pukhtoonkhwa but two in Sindh (urban and rural both). This constitutional divide in addition to the famous language bill of Sindh assembly furnished the final-stroke to the burning iron". I couldn't agree more. This constitution is also showing how urban areas of Sindh has been discriminated. This is unislamic and uncivilized acts against Mohajirs. These are the real reasons of formation of MQM. This is totally wrong to say MQM was created by Zia ul Haq. In 92 Army operation (under Nawaz Govt) some Army General falsely claimed MQM is an agent of RAW. Please decide MQM is an agent of India (RAW) or agent of Pakistan Army (Zia or later Mushraf). OR whole Pakistan Army is working for India. All allegations are baseless. Gulab Khan Islamabad
imkhalid
Aug 24, 2012 10:23am
kabhi kabhi dhan ke articles likh he dete hen paracha sahb
Shazia
Aug 24, 2012 10:23am
No one take notice when MQM people widely state that ‘it is our party’s mission to vacant the all area in Karachi starting from Jama Cloth Market till sea-port for our western godfathers at any cost, please comments.
Muhammad Asif
Aug 24, 2012 10:06am
nice comments sami,
Muhammad Asif
Aug 24, 2012 10:04am
"there should be a complete ban of weapons within any student entity on the campus" -- agreed... "people can easily forget Hakeem Syed’s brutal murder and will not even bother mentioning the extortion techniques used by APMSO and MQM."... Hakim Saeed's murder should be kept separate from MQM. Everyone knows he was killed by the then Nawaz Sharif govt. to malign MQM and pace up the operation against it. How come MQM killed Hakeem Sb when it was subject to state operation? "thuggery should be stopped at different campuses"... this is unaccount for comment. APMSO has not been an extortionist anywhere in its history. "I also think the IJT article was extremely biased. IJT punjab definitely has way more militant tendencies compared to the one operating in Karachi"
Muhammad Asif
Aug 24, 2012 09:56am
Which other party doesn't have this one man-show (except one or two)?. Most of the parties in Pakistan even has their names with their leaders (example: Nawaz leagues, JUI(F) and JUI(S), Chatta league, Zia League, ) or are still living on the names of their leaders (PPP for Bhutto). MQM has a very strong organizational structure in the form of Rabta Committee whereas APMSO is the nursery where future leaders are groomed. It would only be a matter of deciding who'll lead the party. Long live Altaf Hussain.
Muhammad Asif
Aug 24, 2012 09:52am
nice postmortem of baseless allegations
Muhammad Asif
Aug 24, 2012 09:48am
agreed wtih umar saeed
Imran Haider
Aug 24, 2012 09:45am
NFP, While it is balanced, I found a few contradictions in this piece. You mention that "APMSO also began regenerating its militant wing. This wing came into play during the 2007 anti-Musharraf Lawyers Movement (which, MQM being a Musharraf ally was against)." Then, you mention that APMSO regenerated its militant wing (which is for everyone to see in Karachi). You also mention that "All three parties, the PPP, MQM and ANP are now struggling to reign in these ‘rouge elements," as the some militants from these parties are out of control. (Some, not All). And finally, you unconvincingly and without any substantial evidence, declare that "And though armed, it does not contain any special militant units like the ones it bred in the 1980s and 1990s (Black Tigers and Nadeem Commandos)." They may not have such a name now, but they still are active, just like ANP and PPP. Who else is eliminating the police officers who took part in the operation in 1990s? and who is killing the Pashtuns in Karachi?
Muhammad Asif
Aug 24, 2012 09:44am
It was late Jam Sadiq (former CM of Sindh), not agencies!
Muhammad Asif
Aug 24, 2012 09:44am
agreed, Syed Abid.
Muhammad Asif
Aug 24, 2012 09:42am
agreed, Nishant
Asher
Aug 24, 2012 09:41am
Bhutto policies are somewhat incompletely highlighted. The argument that Bhutto was anti mohajer is weak. I stress that his policy was reaction of separation of Bangladesh. It is generally believed that Capitalist class of Karachi and Civil/Military establishment of West Pakistan allied to exploit East Pakistan masses like colonial rulers. So PPP reacted to both: nationalizing industry and cutting short military and civil bureaucracy. One need to read hamood ur Rehman commission report and the five years plan and other GDP statistics earlier than 1972.
Monim
Aug 23, 2012 08:19pm
Agree 100%. I was a student of Pharmacy at UK during this period. I have seen APMSO emerging long before 1978 launch. Most educated people in the country were blocked from getting job based on their talent and credentials. Government nationalizations of Banks, Mills and insurance companies where most of the Urdu speaking were employed, were also taken away from them, worth mention that government jobs were NO GO area for mohajirs. Another example was the treatment of mohajirs in former East Pakistan which became Bangladesh in 1971. They were used by the JI and army and left to die, generations of mohajirs are destroyed and lost due to this hatred and war. Deprivation of rights and injustice brings the frustration and unrest among the masses and ultimately results in arms struggle. How any one can expect mohajirs to come forward and laid their lives to save Pakistan?? What Zia did to Karachi in unforgivable, he allowed the afghans to Karachi and grab land, bring arms and drugs with the help of their (pashtun) brothers and further push the urdu speaking behind. No one understand these issues or recognizes the seriousness, I hope it does not one day result in the disintegration of the state.
Usman Yousaf Virk
Aug 24, 2012 09:14am
Altaf Hussain's speech (widely available at Youtube) in which he said, "PARTITION OF SUBCONTINENT WAS THE GREATEST BLUNDER OF MANKIND" is missing from the analysis although other speeches and images are available. Similarly no written reference to that speech is given anywhere...?
Usman Yousaf Virk
Aug 24, 2012 09:10am
against Talibans because they were Pakhtuns, and MQM was/is already at logger heads with Pakhtuns due to economic compeitition
Nadeem
Aug 24, 2012 09:05am
I agreed with Nadeem Paracha on The Pushtuns were supported by the Pushtun speaking Afghan refugees who had poured into Pakistan during the US-Saudi funded Islamic Muhajideen insurgency against Soviet and Afghan militaries in the Soviet-occupied Afghanistan. Many of these refugees arrived in Karachi with sophisticated weapons and drugs.
Shaista Malik
Aug 24, 2012 09:01am
Above pictures are proof MQM is only party in Pakistan came up from the middle class. Before the MQM Shia / Sunni roits were comon in Karachi. MQM brought sense of brotherhood. I remeber City olympics in 1992, APMSO organized that event, it was the best sports event ever people of pakistan witness. Its true APMSO and MQM took the weapons too becuase thy had no choice. There were severl massacer on Mohajir neghbourhoods. In Qasba Colony PPI killed 200 people in two days. At Hydreabad Jey Sindh (today's PPP) killed 250 people in 2 hour. In 1990 Karachi has 52 police stations and in all plolice stations Punjabi was first launguage and none of the SHO was Mohajir. In custom still Punjabi is a first launguage. Formation of MQM is a reaction of descrimantion. This is good MQM meged themself in the main street. Now they talked about MAZLOOM AWAM of all pakistan. I am sure MQM will bring harmony and peace in the pakistan. please support MQM. Shaista Malik
Aamir
Aug 24, 2012 08:10am
TRUE
Farhan Ali Shah
Aug 24, 2012 03:59pm
Although the writer has given some historical accounts that are not known to many of the readers but seems that regarding the recent history of the APMSO the author has mistakenly linked the allegations raised against MQM with that on APMSO. In last 10 years APMSO has not only provided a lot of leadership to MQM but has provided a lot of facilities and opportunities to the students of Pakistan specially the Karachi. APMSO regularly organize Book Fairs, Science Exhibitions and Model Tests for the students of colleges, universities and technical institutes. Beside organizing such events APMSO also organize debate and declamation contest in universities.
Atif
Aug 24, 2012 07:49am
@Umair what is Imran today is totally different than what he used to be in past. I agree if we started to judge him upon his past. He is far from deserving to become a leader for Pakistan. But what is Pakistan is going through today is all our fault. So I dont agree with you in that sense.
Atif
Aug 24, 2012 07:33am
@sb or whatever the name you have. would you please care to explain a little?
Danish Kazi
Aug 24, 2012 07:31am
If there is one party which had time and again raised head against Talibanisation in Karachi it is MQM. If u read what triggered issues in Karachi was Zia and IJT and refugees coming out of Jihad in Afghanistan . Today the whole world is victim to Zia's legacy and especially the Jihafists. APMSO/MQM was the first party to stand up to it.
omer
Aug 24, 2012 07:29am
yeah sure! urdu speaking are the most illiterate and backward of all communities in pakistan! ( I assume you were not sarcastic)!
Atif
Aug 24, 2012 07:31am
@Mirza. you are correct. 'Shameless' is the least harsh word you can use for these people and they are 'Great Pakistanis' and had won War for Pakistan in 1971 and will save 'Baluchistan' in future.
Dark
Aug 24, 2012 07:00am
A balanced piece. Appreciated.
Khurram
Aug 24, 2012 06:58am
I was never a fan of Nadeem sb, but for the last few months, Nadeem sb. has been writing some excellent articles on different historical aspects of Pakistan. Good Work! Keep it up
Bushra Ansari
Aug 24, 2012 06:57am
I 100% agreed with Dawar Naqvi earlier. He wrote as: MQM is a party of the middle class people. Formation of MQM is a result of prejudice, discrimination. In 1973, Sindh-urban was represented in the Assemblies solely by the “Islamists”, and M.Q.M did not even exist. It was at this point in time when the hatred and divide was constitutionally sown in. Thanks to the constitution of 1973 the malignancy of ‘constitutional divide of Sindh was promulgated in the form five types of domicile in four provinces. There is one Domicile in Punjab, one in Balochistan , one in Khayber Pukhtoonkhwa but two in Sindh (urban and rural both). This constitutional divide in addition to the famous language bill of Sindh assembly furnished the final-stroke to the burning iron. The populace of Sindh-urban was the only one that sent Islamists to the Parliaments in the whole of Pakistan since 1947 to 1987 — Dr. Nazeer Shaheed being the only exception. (Warna ummat tere mehboob ki deewani thi, as Dr. Iqbal put forth in Shikwah)
abid khwaja
Aug 24, 2012 06:53am
It is true that MQM was created by the Govt and it was done by the chief minister of sindh Shah Sahib There is also one more person not mentioned here who is trying to separate himself from Jamia Milia Bihari crowd and also is a member of ISI named Ghulam Mujtiba who graduated from KU Deptartment of Pharmacy in 1978.I am hoping that someday people people of Karachi would find the role he is play ing in dirty politics of Karachi.
Sheraz Ali
Aug 24, 2012 06:48am
To unite all forces in Pakistan, whether they are ethinic (mohajirs/baloch etc), or sectarians, the very first point is to accept their reality and respect their right of freedom. Only when they are accepted as political force, we can reach towards peaceful Pakistan. Living in state of denial by not accepting them will only aggravate the situation. We all are Pakistanis and have created Pakistan to live happily and in peace therefore we should respect others feelings and rights. There is no military solution to any problem, whether it is Karachi/Quetta/Waziristan/Gilgat Baltistan or Afghanistan. The earlier we realize, the better it is for us.
Nishant
Aug 24, 2012 06:48am
All problem would get resolved when u say only "We are all one -One Nation". But you do not stop here and further added one blood one quran one fail and so on .. Problem starts from here....Why can not be just human..
Ruman
Aug 24, 2012 06:43am
Excellent review of the article!
Umair Saeed
Aug 24, 2012 06:36am
Agree with you Adil, If Imran did not mention Miandad name...that does not mean he did it because he was a muhajir. They might have their own personal differences !!!! If that is the case why is Imran Khan building a hospital in Karachi...? And Sud...People like you is the reason Pakistan is not progressing...becuase you all are self-centered....How can you say Allah taala ka hisaab is great...for banned international matches in Pakistan.? Why it took 20 years for matches to get banned in Pakistan, if the kick was so lethal....? Wake up guys and gals....and open eyes to reality....Matches are banned in Pakistan because of law & order situation all over the country....Not because a ferocious Pakhtun/Pathan kicking a Muhajir!!!
Umair Saeed
Aug 24, 2012 06:24am
Have you lost you marbles!!!!....declaring independence from Pakistan....!!!That was never the motive and never is!!! Have you not read the article that the main purpose of APMSO/MQM was to secure rights for the Mohajirs/Karachi businessman etc. It was never and will never be about separation. If we as a nation has failed to make Pakistan as per the ideology of Quaid-e-Azam and Islam....its not Pakistan's fault. We are at fault...you are at fault!!!!
sami
Aug 24, 2012 06:15am
"loot sindh" is a new one!! sometimes hatred forces people to blame MQM for dividing Sindh or Pakistan. Bengalis did what they found good for them. MQM is composed of most senesible and patriotic people therefore they didnt even go against Pakistan when Army led operation was on and never asked for division of Sindh as its always better to have rural and uraban parts together as one unit. Accept the will of people even if they support or vote someone you hate. Serve people in a way that they start supporting "you" instead of MQM.
taarsh
Aug 24, 2012 06:03am
Being a Karachiite, I have seen things happen for long and heard a lot from our elders, some of who witnessed pre partition and post partition incidents. No one among them say that APMSO or MQM should not have been formed. But being a witness to operation clean up and things going on eversince, I can undoubtedly say that the way it was conducted and the manner in which the Muhajir students were brutally killed was obnoxious. Even if they call them militants, the way they were dealt with cannot be justified ever.I wish it never happened.
observer
Aug 24, 2012 05:59am
Always interesting to read NFP.
taarsh
Aug 24, 2012 05:46am
TRUE.
taarsh
Aug 24, 2012 05:43am
Classic example of negativity coming apparently from a negative mind, but one can extract one positive element which is the compliment given to Altaf Hussain (never a cab driver but an educated person) and Muhajirs for being the only group alive, active,brave enough to fight for rights and visionary… !
taarsh
Aug 24, 2012 05:38am
Classic example of negativity coming apparently from a negative mind, but one can extract one positive element which is the compliment given to Altaf Hussain and Muhajirs for being the only group alive, active,brave enough to fight for rights and visionary... !
Anil
Aug 24, 2012 05:34am
Very well written, Nadeem Sahib!
Saleem
Aug 24, 2012 05:07am
The chariman helped the militry ruler when most of the Pakistan were against Musheraf and in past too, Mr Altaf was run to london with the help agencies.
Mirza
Aug 23, 2012 08:31pm
Actually Mr. Virk was born on May 12,2007
Muhammad Ahmed
Aug 23, 2012 08:33pm
I am always amazed hat how objectivity kicks in and the tone changes when the discussion is regarding secular subjects. Well, people can easily forget Hakeem Syed's brutal murder and will not even bother mentioning the extortion techniques used by APMSO and MQM. How is their activities any more acceptable then people collecting funds for non state jihadi organizations. I am surprised that how conveniently the role of arms supply has been referenced to JSSF but the actual cache of arms supply which they have used against military operations has been way more sophisticated compared to any of the other arms used by other student organizations. I also think the IJT article was extremely biased. IJT punjab definitely has way more militant tendencies compared to the one operating in Karachi. I have known 14 and 16 years old who were made active gang members and felt quite great wielding guns for "Altaf Bhai". The author has indeed provided an account which might apply to the less violent side of APSMO but a significant number associated with this group has engaged in numerous illegal activities. I think NFP should do equal justice while writing as a historian regarding PSF, NSF and MQM/APMSO. His projection of APMSO does not apply to almost half of the members and their thuggery should be stopped at different campuses. Infact, there should be a complete ban of weapons within any student entity on the campus.
Intikhab
Aug 23, 2012 08:45pm
A good research work, putting together material from different sources. It started as a review of APMSO and ended with focus on MQM. I wish it would have been entirely about APMSO's politics and shifts it underwent in its ideology since its establishment.
Sud
Aug 23, 2012 07:43pm
These arms are used to protect the citizens of Karachi from the the terrorists of People amn committee, ANP and the Taliban. If it wouldn't have been for the MQM, Urdu speaking people would have been wiped off the face of Karachi by these terrorists and goons!! Forgot what happened in Liaquatabad in the 60s and then in Orangi in the 80s, Virk? There was no MQM then!!
Nabeela Alam
Aug 23, 2012 07:39pm
Interesting read. But then almost all pieces, satirical or historical, by NFP are interesting. Intriguing pic up there showing college girls of a state owned college protesting in 1985. Not a single one of them wearing a hijab or a ninja burqa.
Sud
Aug 23, 2012 07:37pm
How do you know they were burning cars and throwing stones, Khan?
Sud
Aug 23, 2012 07:36pm
Saima, Imran Khan has always been extremely biased against Urdu Speaking people. I am sure you remember when he kicked a fan in Karachi during a match and later on went on to suggest that cricket matches should be banned in Karachi. Allah Taa'laa's hisaab is great, now the entire Pakistan is banned for international matches.
Wasim Zaidi
Aug 23, 2012 07:33pm
NFP, although you toiled with the core reasons of the inception, the write up is missing the real basis of the formation of APMSO The vision behind the formation of APMSO was to bring the common oppressed men of the country into the power corridors which were prohibited before APMSO and MQM and this prohibition was always taken for granted. APMSO is a unique example of creation of a strong Political Party from the womb of a Student Organization, contrary to other political groups which form their student wings. It shows the vision, strength, determination & caliber of the member of this student organization & its founders who turned a student group into leaders of international repute. APMSO was the Evolution of that Revolution now known as MQM.
Muttahida
Aug 23, 2012 02:08pm
You missed the part NFP where clashes took place in Hyderbad and QILA operation was carried out. Or are you biased towards PPP in that case?
anony
Aug 23, 2012 07:18pm
Although I'm not politically affiliated to any party, I have had personal frightening experience with apmso men whenever i visited KU, or DJ science college. These people are all thugs and no different than the taliban and force u to act, walk and believe exactly the way they do. All weapons are freely available to these men. I think Pakistan is the only country in the world where terror reigns on university/college campuses.
aimsyed
Aug 23, 2012 07:16pm
In Sindh Urdu Speaking Community have been deprived from Govt Jobs Why???? While it must be on the merit basis not ethnicity..
Wasim
Aug 23, 2012 07:12pm
You must talk about Urdu Speaking Majority who have been deprived from Govt Jobs Sector, while they are as Pakistani as other even though they have suffered more than any other ethnicity.
Abdul Majid
Aug 23, 2012 06:55pm
Another interesting factor regarding the Paka Qilla Operation in Hyderabad is also badly described by those who support MQM or APMSO fanatically. How those people who were taking positions on the bunkers of top of Qilla walls were resisting the Pakistan Army?
A. Khan
Aug 23, 2012 06:47pm
Apart from the fact that MQM, however idealistic its goals, has turned into a party of goons and thugs, I agree with most of what you said. MQM, unfortunately, has morphed into a mafia that demands bhutta from all businesses in Karachi. It feeds on the very citizens it claims to protect and fight for.
A. Khan
Aug 23, 2012 06:44pm
If they had been sitting at home studying instead of burning cars and throwing stones, this wouldn't have happened. Really sad.
Danish Kazi
Aug 23, 2012 06:38pm
APMSO represents the struggle where all the odds are against you. Your leader teaches you not to loose your discipline , not to loose your direction and keep pressing with your goals. APMSO started against the hegemony of IJT and then PSF. It survived a military operation , it survived persecution sometimes at the hands of opponents and some times by teachers as well. But then the leadership taught you to survive and grow. The opportunity for the APMSO workers is immense and all have a chance to grow unlike becoming just slaves or guards to their leaders. Currently many MNA's and MPA's started their political careers as APMSO workers. Unlike other parties which look for established political horses to win em elections. MQM looks towards its student wing for its next line of leaders. No doubt APMSO forms the nucleus of MQM. There should have been or could have been more but then again there is only one APMSO . NFP has tried to do justice . But again the struggles would only be known to those who fought and maybe and survived. This wing has contributed significantly to the struggles of middle class infant kick started it. Don't forget APMSO and MQM has a strong foundation due to its leadership and blood of the martyrs at its core . Accusations leveled for decades has only made this movement strong and that's it.
Dawar Naqvi
Aug 23, 2012 06:10pm
MQM is a party of the middle class people. Formation of MQM is a result of prejudice, discrimination. In 1973, Sindh-urban was represented in the Assemblies solely by the “Islamists”, and M.Q.M did not even exist. It was at this point in time when the hatred and divide was constitutionally sown in. Thanks to the constitution of 1973 the malignancy of ‘constitutional divide of Sindh was promulgated in the form five types of domicile in four provinces. There is one Domicile in Punjab, one in Balochistan , one in Khayber Pukhtoonkhwa but two in Sindh (urban and rural both). This constitutional divide in addition to the famous language bill of Sindh assembly furnished the final-stroke to the burning iron. The populace of Sindh-urban was the only one that sent Islamists to the Parliaments in the whole of Pakistan since 1947 to 1987 — Dr. Nazeer Shaheed being the only exception. (Warna ummat tere mehboob ki deewani thi, as Dr. Iqbal put forth in Shikwah)
Saima Khan
Aug 23, 2012 06:02pm
NFP You missed the Massacres in Hyderabad and in Orangi Town, Qazba Colony by ANP & PPI militants. Did you mention about PPI and their killings? As you mentioned APMSO was formed in 1978. But Punjabi Students Organization, Puktoon Students Organization (ANP), Jea Sindh, Bloach students militant wings were exits far before the APMSO. Hostels in Karachi were the safe haven for the militants always. PSO leader Istiaq Choudary misbehave the medical student in the middle of Sind Medical College. In 80’s Nasir Phattan was the gang leader at National College and Incharge of Puktoon Student wing, he cutoff the hand of other Student. They even kidnapped young boys from the colleges. MQM formation was the reaction of Discrimination against Urdu Speaking (Mohajirs). Do not forget 1992 world cup Pakistan won only five matches, And Javed Miandad scored over 50 on each innings. He was the highest scorer of 92 world cup. How many times Imran praised his performance? Yes, he talked about his hospital, Inzimam’s battinng, wasim’s bowling and his leadership. But never mention about Miandad performance.
A.B Moondra
Aug 23, 2012 05:52pm
politics is a game of blood in Pakistan.:(
Usman Yousaf Virk
Aug 23, 2012 05:51pm
exactly, since the writer stated that MQM is still armed in the same breath he also stated that there are no militant wings, in this scenario I would like to know who carries/posses/uses these arms
Adeeb Khan
Aug 24, 2012 02:25pm
A typical narrow minded Pakistani mindset towards Urdu speaking people.
Umer
Aug 30, 2012 01:22pm
This I would agree ! one thing that MQM has better than PTI is a student wing which give leadership into main party. Maybe PTI is a newer party .
Umer
Aug 30, 2012 01:17pm
vision of MQM ? care to elaborate?
Umer
Aug 30, 2012 01:18pm
No doubt you are!! a party like MQM can teach hatred and racism only.
Jamal Syed
Aug 23, 2012 05:34pm
Just to bring the atrocities of 1991-1994 in perspective, 17,000 young men were killed in Karachi by rangers and army during that time period.
Usman Yousaf Virk
Aug 23, 2012 02:12pm
You have shown images of 1992 published in a news paper of killed MQM activists, while exactly same images of people killed by MQM in 2007 are widely available, you shall have also posted them. In the end you have mentioned: "though armed, it does not contain any special militant units". Can you clarify what these arms are for?
bands1997
Aug 23, 2012 05:19pm
NFP..... partially you may have the facts out there... but this is an incomplete picture. Major events from 1978 to 1992 have completely been missed... You need to research more...... Altaf Hussain never had a Magic Wand to bring everybody together, those were the circumstances. To refresh your memory investigate the following incidents. (and this is just he list of few) 1- Bushra Zaidi Incident, 2-Incident of Orangi Town, 3-Incident of Pakka Qila, And yes you have completely deviated the picture of Army Operation in 1992. You have presented it in such a manner that Cold Blooded Murder of 15000 people does not matter to you. Also, you have not mentioned the Jinnah Pur conspiracy (which was the base of army operation of 1992) and was accepted by Army that it was fabricated. Just to let you know, MQM is a reaction of the actions and atrocities it has seen. Oh yes, you completely missed the biggest issue behind the creation of APMSO, THE QUOTA SYSTEM.
Anonymous
Aug 23, 2012 05:06pm
mr.atif go on google and enter 12 may ,enter words "mqm atrocities" then your tears will be dry.
Dawar Naqvi
Aug 23, 2012 05:05pm
MQM is a party of the middle class people. Formation of MQM is a result of prejudice, discrimination. In 1973, Sindh-urban was represented in the Assemblies solely by the “Islamists”, and M.Q.M did not even exist. It was at this point in time when the hatred and divide was constitutionally sown in. Thanks to the constitution of 1973 the malignancy of ‘constitutional divide of Sindh was promulgated in the form five types of domicile in four provinces. There is one Domicile in Punjab, one in Balochistan , one in Khayber Pukhtoonkhwa but two in Sindh (urban and rural both). This constitutional divide in addition to the famous language bill of Sindh assembly furnished the final-stroke to the burning iron. The populace of Sindh-urban was the only one that sent Islamists to the Parliaments in the whole of Pakistan since 1947 to 1987 — Dr. Nazeer Shaheed being the only exception. Warna ummat tere mehboob ki deewani thi, as Dr. Iqbal put forth in Shikwah) Dawar Naqvi LA, USA
Ali Sher
Aug 23, 2012 02:13pm
MQM does not have a militant wing? Come on Nadeem, any one living in Karachi and Hyderabad knows that they have power militant wing
ERASER
Aug 23, 2012 04:23pm
AMAZING ARTICLE,RESPECT FOR NFP...
noor
Aug 23, 2012 04:13pm
hey, you are spot on
Karachi Wala
Aug 23, 2012 04:05pm
NFP has given mostly a balanced account of the formation of APMSO, Mohajir Qumi Movement to Mutihadda. I would like to pose few question/statements to either NFP or other readers. 1- Is it not true that at the inception of Pakistan local Sindhis greeted muhajirs (mostly Urdu speakers) to their land with open arms? And what they got in return? They lost all of their Large cities. 2- Were Sindhi Nationalists wrong claiming Sindhis were being treated like Red Indians by Urdu speaker? Could it be traced to superiority complex to not only sindhis but against all provinces? 3- If Karachites had no objection, to Persian, Arabic, Urdu and English being taught in schools why they retaliated against Sindhi as a subject? After all this was the language of the locals. 4- There was no voice raised from prominent Urdu speakers when Urdu was imposed on the then East Pakistanis. 5- True, Zia had his own agenda when backing Punjabi businessmen in Karachi. In a nutshell they had Mullah mentality and supported Zia's Islamization agenda. NFP forgot to mention even during pre Zia era there was a substantial share of businessmen who had Punjabi roots, especially Sheikhs of Chiniot. Nevertheless’, Under Altaf Hussain’s guidance today’s MQM has come a long way. In today’s Pakistan it is almost impossible for any party to claim and act liberal. I think MQM is one such party and Altaf Hussain can put forward such a claim with some substance.
Karachi Wala
Aug 23, 2012 03:59pm
NFP has given mostly a balanced account of the formation of APMSO, Mohajir Qoumi Movement to Mutihadda. I would like to pose few question/statements to either NFP or other readers. 1- Is it not true that at the inception of Pakistan local Sindhis greeted muhajirs (mostly Urdu speakers) to their land with open arms? And what they got in return? They lost all of their Large cities. 2- Were Sindhi Nationalists wrong claiming Sindhis were being treated like Red Indians by Urdu speaker? Could it be traced to superiority complex to not only sindhis but against all provinces? 3- If Karachites had no objection, to Persian, Arabic, Urdu and English being taught in schools why they retaliated against Sindhi as a subject? After all this was the language of the locals. 4- There was no voice raised from prominent Urdu speakers when Urdu was imposed on the then East Pakistanis. 5- True, Zia had his own agenda when backing Punjabi businessmen in Karachi. In a nutshell they had Mullah mentality and supported Zia's Islamization agenda. NFP forgot to mention even during pre Zia era there was a substantial share of businessmen who had Punjabi roots, especially Sheikhs of Chiniot. Nevertheless’, Under Altaf Hussain’s guidance today’s MQM has come a long way. In today’s Pakistan it is almost impossible for any party to claim and act liberal. I think MQM is one party and Altaf Hussain can put forward such a claim with some substance.
sherey ali
Aug 23, 2012 03:52pm
Great job NFP! really good read and insightful for those who are unaware of MQM's roots. Nevertheless, how much Altaf's role in militarizing the MQM remains unanswered? One really wonder, is it really a party of poor and middle class, for which it consistently claims for. As a matter of fact they are being privileged since two decades while dragging their own fallacies. And the poverty, terrorism, nepotism, corruption and plethora of evil elements are still our best pals and ever increasing - pity.
real slim shady
Aug 23, 2012 03:45pm
Another article from NFP showing is pro-MQM and Pro-PPP biases. No mention of ; 1) How MQM-APMSO forced Jung news paper to give in time after time 2) How the journalists/news papers/TV show were forced to exhibit MQM's view 3) How non-MQM (mahajirs and others) were silenced 4) How businesses were forced to contribute 5) No pictures of non-APMSO students killed by APMSO List goes on and on.
noor
Aug 23, 2012 03:41pm
For me MQM emerged from deprivation of mohajir community, but latter on it turned out to be a private army (gang). There is a huge following of MQM, but there are also incidents of forcing people for votes or to come to their jalsas. I am a Punjabi Mohajir, as per my father, my grandfather had a handful of agricultural land around 2 murabas, but here in Pak we only got six acres, but we never took the slogan of Mohajirism, etc. MQM needs to clean its ranks from militants to be a more political party and it needs to have election in its ranks to bring more transparency (according to CIA, MQM has around 10,000 armed militants), but all in all a good addition to pak politics
Atif
Aug 23, 2012 03:34pm
the second last image refreshed my memories and brought tears in my eyes..
Syed Junaid Ali
Aug 24, 2012 07:38pm
As reader I am much surprised the way NFP paracha has twisted the facts and tried to write an article as analysis which has weak links with the historical facts which led the formation of APMSO and then its transformation to MQM. NFP has not mentioned the factual points about sense of deprivation and threat to the muhjir students inside only one public university KU. Muhjirs were always supported IJT in Karachi but IJT never protected the rights of Muhajirs in KU or any other public sector colleges. When muhjirs students were being harassed by PSA or PSF etc they were left un-attended. There was time that respectable families did not allow their daughter to attend KU for higher education only due the fear of uncertain situation of Harassing and disrespect. There were Students wing to talk about admission and other problems of all ethnicity but there was no body to talk about problem faced by Muhajirs. We have seen Bhatta Collection PSA from medical stores near Civil Hospital in 1970s. Even if Altaf Hussain was sympathizer of IJT he has to leave it only because of impotency of IJT for the protection of right of Muhjirs. NFP has tried to mix two very different and distinct entity i.e., mqm and apmso as same. APMSO is student wing which has never participated in any activity of violence. I feel that there is some misconception and either due to lack of information or duet to some other reason best known to NFP he has tried to count murder of Njeeb in the account of APMSO / MQM but innocently he forget the role of PPP for his killing on his misbehavior with Qaim Ali Shah. Khalid Bin Waleed from MQM was charged with the murder of so called brave police SHO but he could not prove the claim in court. I feel that the people who put KBW name in FIR should be investigated by Najmi Alam so that actual murderer of Najeeb should be exposed. Most of the time people like NFP try to malign the mqm by involving its men in beating of Kaleem in Landhi Khel, actual fact was that the same day ISI has tried to give control of Landhi Khel from MQM (Altaf) to MQM (H) after failing their design what Major Kaleem was doing civvies in Landhi Khel. I am some time unable to understand what to do with those videos available on youtube of ANP, PPP and JI showing firing with guns if only MQM is responsible for death of 14 of its own worker. what Sherry Reman was doing in her Pajero at drig road and who was friring from the roof top of her pajero. When NFP talks about APMSO he forgets its positive out come. it is the only students wing which is providing political leadership on regular basis. its debat club, its youth parliament, its study aid project, its other program out weighs its weakness if any.
ahmad butt
Aug 24, 2012 01:22pm
Umm Ahsan, i think these parties are already in power and allied( there is a struggle for street power which is visible in karachi), and urban cities are already laced with wadera system of strength display young men laced with guns and ammunition. I was hoping for a PTI and MQM alliance, and i hope Imran Khan gets the hint that oppression breeds oppression that is why the events of the past unfolded. As for the anti-PPP crowd, if the people vote for PPP even after non-deliverance of the promises, it is people fault to get them in power again. And my bet is PTI, PML-N and JI taking power for a few years and then a little know army garnalle( general) rising up the ranks for a prompt military coup , a patriotic 9PM televised address and a barrage of media flurry declaring us a failed state laced with rogue elements. As the saying goes, history repeats itself.
Hashim Azam
Aug 23, 2012 03:21pm
I completely disagreed with writer collecting bits and pieces from different news papers and magazine then write this kind of ??? What can I say ? The fact is MQM and Altaf Hussain been targeted and victimised by the establishment and their paid politicians because the never compromised over certain principle benefiting people of Sindh.
yawar
Aug 23, 2012 02:59pm
NFP your features here are always a treat to read.
hammad
Aug 24, 2012 01:24pm
bhoot khoob nishant bhai
Syed Junaid Ali
Aug 24, 2012 08:59pm
Nabeela Behan, if i have clearly understood you, you feel that i am not aware of those points in these paragrph then you are requested to read what i have written the word impotency of IJT is enough the way they treated Altaf Hussain and Muhajirs in those days. Impotency means unable to deliver. I request if there is any point other than this then please, reply so that i can answer it to express my point of view.
Sudy
Aug 24, 2012 01:17pm
Since Taliban are pakhtun, don't say anything against them. Guess this is the rule then??
Umer
Aug 28, 2012 09:05am
I often disagree to NFP but quite agree with this one.
Sameer
Aug 29, 2012 04:49am
You are right Salman, Karachi being separate from Sindh and Pakistan will solve a lot of problems and create much needed peace following liberal and tolerant ways and not being ruled by wadera from PPP. But here is an issue: the people of Karachi are very patriotic too and will not want to break away!
Muhammad Asif
Aug 24, 2012 11:13am
excellent comment
Kamran Sheikh
Aug 24, 2012 11:36am
All is fine, bhatta khori is also very fine.
Sidra
Aug 24, 2012 10:54am
The boys ages starts from 14 years + are giving training for Bhatta Khori, please imagine that what could happen after some years when a generation will be fully prepared and giving a target of collection.
Sam
Aug 24, 2012 10:50am
@ Anonymous: On 12th May live firing covered by a new channel was only showing one side of the picture so all the blame is poured onto that side, had they turned their cameras a little left then the world would have also seen that this firing was not a one-sided affair. In Karachi all political parties are armed so why we only blame one party for its armed wing. Isn't this another prejudice and imbalance in judgment?
Salman
Aug 24, 2012 10:53am
A true analysis....agreed.
Salman
Aug 24, 2012 10:48am
Bravo NFP....agreed to majority of the content. As far as the militant side of the student wing, you are aware of the fact that IJT was the one who introduced firearms to educational institutes in Karachi with a militant wing 'Thunder Squad' and followed by other student outfits. The rise of APMSO/MQM was due to the sense of neglect when people were denied of their due rights, one example is quota system which only persist in Sindh. You have witnessed the unprecetended growth of metropolis in Musharraf era, but again the sindhi mindset is creating hurdles in local bodies elections. You may twist the arm of APMSO/MQM on 'militancy' but not a single party in our mainstream is without a militant wing.
AHSAN RIZVI
Aug 24, 2012 10:34am
I think an alliance between PPP, MQM and ANP is the need of the hour as the way things are going on i have got serious doubts that the time is not far when the tacit support of these conservative parties like PML, PTI and JI will empower the fundamental forces to take over the major urban centres of Pakistan which will have a devastating effect on the country and among the comity of the nation.
Sameer
Aug 27, 2012 04:38am
That is very true Minhaj. I think this should have been mentioned. Mustafa Kamal is really an icon for those who aspire to become future leaders.
Muhammad Ahmed Mufti
Aug 24, 2012 04:43pm
Fact not mentioned is that MQM/APMSO has ruled karachi/hyderabad for last 20 years and besides few new roads have not delivered anything substantial to the masses they represent. MQM and ANP are playing fear tactics to keep their vote bank. Its time MQM and ANP vote bank should switch to PTI and break this cycle of fear.
AR
Aug 24, 2012 11:51am
30+ years of history can not be encompassed in few pages. the article certainly gloss over on many events. It appears more of an opinion piece based on news clippings (mostly one sided during 80s/90s) and hearsy. Events quoted (e.g. May 2007) has been controvercial to say the least and the provided description does not add anything. The article does not address the cause on why MQM gained popularity among Karachiites within a short span during mid 80s. It mentions of dozens of police man killed and hundreds of MQM workers murdered, presumably in attempt to stay balanced, which is gross injustice to thousands (not hundreds) of MQM workers (and sympathazers) who suffered the state sponsored military action in many ways for almost a decade. The blog does no mention how the party agenda/philosophy differs from other parties in Pakistan particulary its anti-feudalistic stance. In my opinion its a mediocre effort lacking the rigor of journalistic writings.
Syed Kashif Nawaz
Aug 24, 2012 12:01pm
In Pakistan perhaps MQM has the most organized party structure, Mr. Altaf Hussain is the founder & leader but not the final authority, sometimes he too have to follow the advise of Rabetta Committee. Other Party which have strong organizational structure is Jamat-e-Islami. Both the parties can be run without the initial leaders due to their discipline & structure.
Shumaila
Aug 24, 2012 12:06pm
Yet again, NFP has shown how much he is biased towards MQM, partly because he's half-Mahajir himself. I'm pretty sure this comment would be deleted, but if it's not, it'll show how unbiased Dawn can be.
Syed Kashif Nawaz
Aug 24, 2012 12:06pm
Well, it is a balanced writeup by N.F.Paracha but there is something missing. Perhaps Mr. Paracha could not mention the reason of initial armament of APMSO. Mr. Paracha himself remained the part of University & have witnessed the atrocities of other student groups specially IJT. One more thing, there is a long list of the atrocities against MQM/APMSO, the writer should have highlighted the planned attacks on APMSO workers in universities/colleges, the biased role of Rangers/Police, Pakka Qila Operation & the Media Trial/Propaganda War against MQM/APMSO to label it as a fascist group. Anyways, thanks Mr. Paracha to update us in this regard.
Zenish Farooq
Aug 24, 2012 03:39pm
I am from Hazara Division living & studying in Karachi, initially being unaware of the facts I disliked MQM/APMSO. Believe me after observing & acquiring knowledge about MQM/APMSO, the history & how the Muhajir Community was deprived of its rights for that MQM/Altaf Hussain has started struggle not only for Muhajirs but also for others, I simply started supported them. I don't care what others label MQM & Altaf Hussain, what mistakes they did in the past, but now MQM/APMSO/AltafHussain are the last hope for us.
Zenish Farooq
Aug 24, 2012 03:33pm
Isn't it your open bias against Muhajirs? BTW N.F.P. is gone biased against MQM/APMSO in this article. read it again please.
Shakil
Aug 24, 2012 11:25am
That's true.
Pradeep
Aug 24, 2012 03:32pm
This is the best article that covers all of Karachi Politics with detailed explanation of present day situation.
Karachi Wala
Aug 24, 2012 11:34am
I am still waiting for answers or corrections for the questions / statements I have put together above. True, countries and people can not live in the past forever. However, unless we revisit the history and make corrections there is no gaurentee in future similar mistakes will not be repeated. I would appriciate answers either from NFP or some other reader. Thank you
Fahim
Aug 24, 2012 03:22pm
Though MQM had many opportunities to undo the injustice done to Mohajirs. It did not deliver on any promises. Entire Mohijir community is now more backward then before. They are politically and economically weak. MQM have destroyed the culture of acquiring good education which was prevalent in Urdu speaking community. With the finance and power available to them during the Pervez Mussharaf period they could have established many high class educational establishment for Sindh urban areas but they failed to capitalize on this. With proper planning and marketing they could have made Karachi like Dubai by investing in economic infrastructure like industry, transport (subways,local train system (building few ugly overhead bridges achieves nothing). MQM leadership has been short-sighted and lack vision. Currently most Urdu speaking youths in Karachi are jobless due to lack of opportunities since MQM has failed to create jobs in Karachi through economic activity during their golden time in power with Pervez Musharraf. Fighting with Pashtuns or Sindhis or any other community living in Karachi does not serve MQM's long term interest. We are only stronger then others if we are educationally and economically superior to others.
Muhammad Asif
Aug 24, 2012 11:40am
and still those very people love that very party? how strange?
Ahmer Abdullah (@AhmerAbdullah)
Aug 24, 2012 02:17pm
With Due respect to Mr. Paracha, i would like to mention only one point in your knowledge that the armed battle was allegedly between different parties including Sunni Tehreek (ST), Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PML-N) and Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf Imran Khan Group (PTI-IK). Also Mr. Paracha ! you have referred wrong dates from the history For e.g. APMSO and MQM was not converted into "Muttahid" in 1998. MQM converted in 1997 and APMSO in 2006. Thanks
Ahsan
Aug 24, 2012 08:21am
Bhatta Khori is TRUE?
saad
Aug 24, 2012 12:18pm
agreed Shaista