03 September, 2014 / Ziqa'ad 7, 1435

Intellectual deficit

Updated Aug 25, 2013 08:07am

AS Mohammad Sikandar’s Islamabad adventure unfolded on our TV screens, two very significant developments failed to attract the attention of the media: the security forces unearthing a reportedly Al Qaeda/Taliban-linked communication hub in Lahore and the recovery of more than 100 tons of explosive material in Quetta.

It was not so much the absence of news sense as a weak threat perception that compelled the media to ignore these developments and focus on the lone wolf from Hafizabad.

The media people will have their own arguments, some of them logical, supporting their response, but only a few will admit that Pakistan’s media lacks professional capacity and expertise vis-à-vis terrorism.

There is a dearth of scholarship and expertise on the topic even among some of the leading anchorpersons and opinion-makers based in federal and provincial capitals.

Think of TV talk shows on security issues. Everything is monotonous, repetitive, superficial and at times misleading and annoying — from anchors to experts, from topics to content, and from analyses to recommendations.

The print media is not very different from its electronic counterpart, with the exception of some op-ed pieces and editorials which actually contribute to the issue. On the whole, the print media too reflects serious intellectual deficit on the subject of terrorism.

While the entire nation has long faced the direct and indirect consequences of terrorism, much of the media debate on the subject ends up confusing public opinion by oversimplifying and externalising the threat. Interestingly, many opinion leaders still avoid naming terrorist groups and their leaders.

One may link the media’s clumsy response to issues of militancy and terrorism to the overall intellectual deficit that pervades almost all spheres of life in the country.

A famous proverb by Chinese strategist Sun Tzu offers the students of strategic studies an insight on such attitudes: “know your enemy, know yourself, in 100 battles, you will never be defeated; if ignorant of both your enemy and of yourself, you are sure to be defeated in every battle”.

Apart from public debate and the role of opinion leaders, the academic discourse on the subject is also weak. Empirical and methodologically sound scientific research is a particularly significant missing link in the academic discourse focused primarily on the political and ideological aspects of the problem. Most of it is neither relevant to the emerging realities nor has much to say about the future course of action to tackle terrorism and related issues.

Indeed, the insight on threat perception, evidence base and projections that is critical to formulating effective policies is missing across the board — from the Pakistani media to the academia and intelligentsia to the political leadership.

The consequences? Militants are far ahead when it comes to propagating their ideology. The people have confused views on the militants and militancy. Security forces fighting the militants are demoralised. The state is still looking for a counterterrorism policy.

The achievements of the security and intelligence agencies in Lahore and Quetta in unearthing a militant network and recovering a huge cache of explosive material, respectively, should be carefully analysed; even a small clue can lead to significant discoveries. This is a general principle across the world. Failure

to do so will provide militants an opportunity to recover and strike again by changing their tactics.

Unfortunately, it is probable that the law enforcement agencies will lose this opportunity to expand the scope of their investigations. In the absence of a firm tradition to analyse their failures, it is hardly likely that security agencies will build upon these or other successes.

Every law enforcement agency understands the dynamics of terrorism threats and counterterrorism measures. Each knows that the five major targets of the terrorists are the security forces, sectarian rivals, political leaders, foreigners and foreign interests, and public and private infrastructure mainly communication networks and properties.

The terrorists’ strategies are also well-known — suicide attacks, targeted killing, guerilla-style operations at sensitive installations, car bombs and improvised explosive devices.

The operational areas of the militants are specific, and the groups, their locations and their support bases are known. Even vulnerabilities are known, and the terrorists’ future targets, strategies and tactics which they have yet to employ in Pakistan, are identified.

State institutions know how to counter these threats and they have tried to respond accordingly. The state knows it can ban and restrict terrorist groups, their publications and public appearances.

The state can take several countering measures, among them the introduction of new legislation, developing an effective intelligence-sharing mechanism, tightening border security and granting special powers to security forces and courts to speed up trials of suspected militants. It knows the long-term implications of terrorism and has included political measures like talks and truces in its response.

But is it as simple as all that? It appears that the dynamics of terrorism and counterterrorism are quite easy to understand. But ask implementing agencies and they say it is complex. Most importantly, in the context of counterterrorism, using the available resources effectively is as necessary as understanding the nature of the threat.

A phrase in counterterrorism and counter-insurgency studies is “think beyond conventional measures”, but this is not easy to do. This idea has generated some responses in security circles but the terrorism challenge will not go away simply because of isolated responses here and there.

At a certain level, even these responses can be connected to evolve an effective protection mechanism against terrorism. Many advocate a cycle of reforms in the security sector — from better policing, intra-departmental coordination, proper judicial response, and cyber security — to counter terrorism and terrorism financing. But what is needed to evolve these initiatives is an overall recovery from the prevailing intellectual deficit.

Both the state and society need to combine their strengths to not only evolve counterterrorism measures but to also encroach on the ideological and political domain of the militants.

The writer is a security analyst.


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Comments (6) (Closed)


Baba Batra
Aug 25, 2013 10:38am

Can you expect intellectual agility in a land where wisdom comes from "uniform"? Not only security issues, but everything that flashes across the screens has this stale quality. Education in Pakistan is so damned pedestrian.

M.Hanif Awan
Aug 25, 2013 11:10am

Bravo,,,,,in the whole 5 years period of PPP,no body dared to SPEAK / wrote against this NONSENSE behavior of our AZAD MEDIA ,rather they were encourraged to move on n on against PPP government,,,,,now when NOORAS R in POWER,all MOMINS have come out with their own logic,to control the MEDIA against NOORAS.Media take care,,,NOORAS have come out to PUNISH media.........??????????????

Aftab Kenneth Wilson
Aug 25, 2013 12:56pm

I would request Mr. Muhammad Amir Rana to confirm if he is the same writer who wrote a book titled '' Aur Adalat Haar Gae '' way back in late 1990's? I would only comment that Pakistan is facing the same situation at all levels the way it was facing during the rule of today's PM.

Zubair Khan
Aug 25, 2013 03:02pm

"A phrase in counter terrorism and counter-insurgency studies is “think beyond conventional measures”, but this is not easy to do. This idea has generated some responses in security circles but the terrorism challenge will not go away simply because of isolated responses here and there"

A thought provoking article and writer deserves congratulations. Instead limiting to counter terrorism I would term it achievement of societal peace. Some times even tiny and unassuming nations also leaves examples to follow. Ghana a tiny land in West Africa is the best example I can quote. I just returned from there. On 29th of August the Supreme court is announcing the decision about disputed Presidential Elections which were held in December last year and as result NDC political party government is in power. For all the 24 hours the electronic and print media is emphasizing the whole nation to abide by the decision of SC as to enable the peace of the nation to prevail. There are no concepts of Dharna or violent protests in the streets. The message is so strong and hammered in the minds of each person that no one thinks of any other act. Here in Pakistan also one of the beyond conventional measures could be hammering the importance of societal harmony and peace amongst all the citizens irrespective of their religious beliefs, colour, ethnicity or breed. I am a regular viewer of various Pakistani TV programs. Also read many English and Urdu news papers and fully endorse the writer that we as nation do not think beyond conventional measures. Peace specially in Pakistani society can not be achieved unless the mind set of the nation is changed. Main goal should be tolerance of each other irrespective of all the differences. In Ghana, inspite of many religions, tribes and ethnicity, even the poorest citizen feels first to be the Ghanaian. Is it so in Pakistan? Not at all. We differentiate each other either on religion or on ethnic basis. This thinking of being Pakistani first which is beyond conventional measures has to be given a deep thought and has to start at all level. Be it Kindergarten, primary schools and in all other institutions. Easy to say but difficult to implement as it requires lot of personal sacrifices by each citizen of Pakistan. And on top of it a really great visionary leader of Mr Jinnah status who can show the courage to separate the state from religion. Do we have in sight any such personality? To me answer is negative.

khanm
Aug 25, 2013 04:13pm

There could be one and only explanation for intellectual deficit either we are dumb or we don’t want to….. We are keeping terrorism alive for some reasons best known to our agencies…. May be we are keeping it a rain check. There are three kinds of intelligence: one kind understands things for itself, the other appreciates what others can understand, the third understands neither for itself nor through others. This first kind is excellent, the second good, and the third kind useless.

Javed
Aug 25, 2013 08:19pm

We will continue to be entangled in such events and discussions until we keep presenting "jihad" as a glorious activity.