STOCKHOLM: Roger Penrose of Britain, Reinhard Genzel of Germany and Andrea Ghez of the US won the Nobel Physics Prize on Tuesday for their research into what the Nobel committee called “one of the most exotic phenomena in the universe, the black hole”.

Penrose, 89, was honoured for showing “that the general theory of relativity leads to the formation of black holes”, while Genzel, 68, and Ghez, 55, were jointly awarded for discovering “that an invisible and extremely heavy object governs the orbits of stars at the centre of our galaxy”, the jury said.

Ghez is just the fourth woman to receive the physics prize since 1901 when the first Nobel prizes were handed out.

“I feel delighted to be recognised in that way because I think having visible role models can make a huge impact on young women thinking about becoming scientists,” Ghez said.

The first woman to win the prize was Marie Curie in 1903, who was also the first person to receive two Nobel prizes when she won the 1911 chemistry prize.

The term “black hole” refers to a point in space where matter is so compressed as to create a gravity field from which even light cannot escape.

For years physicists questioned whether black holes could really exist but Penrose, a professor at the University of Oxford, used mathematical modelling to prove back in 1965 that black holes can form.

This combination of pictures created on October 6 shows (L-R) Roger Penrose, Reinhard Genzel and US astronomer and professor Andrea Ghez. — AFP
This combination of pictures created on October 6 shows (L-R) Roger Penrose, Reinhard Genzel and US astronomer and professor Andrea Ghez. — AFP

His calculations proved that black holes — super-dense objects formed when a heavy star collapses under the weight of its own gravity — are a direct consequence of Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which crowns the Nobel Prize winners in physics, chemistry and economics, said Penrose’s 1965 article “is still regarded as the most important contribution to the general theory of relativity since Einstein”.

Penrose also worked closely with famed physicist Stephen Hawking, who died in 2018 after a long neurodegenerative illness, and some experts lamented that he was no longer around to share the credit.

“It’s a shame that Penrose and Hawking didn’t get the Nobel before now,” said Luc Blanchet, from the Paris Institute of Astrophysics and director of the National Centre for Scientific Research.

Genzel and Ghez have led research since the early 1990s focusing on a region called Sagittarius A* at the centre of the Milky Way.

Using the world’s largest telescopes, they discovered an extremely heavy, invisible object — around 4 million times greater than the mass of our Sun — that pulls on surrounding stars, giving our galaxy its characteristic swirl.

The pair in particular developed methods to see through the huge clouds of interstellar gas and dust to the centre of the Milky Way, creating new techniques to compensate for the image distortion caused by Earth’s atmosphere.

In April 2019, astronomers unveiled the first photo of a black hole.

Martin Ward, a professor of astronomy at Durham University, called the work of the trio “a great example of theoretical insight and prediction followed by state-of-the-art observational evidence”.

“Using classical Newtonian mechanics the nearest super massive black hole at our galactic centre was revealed, and so ‘darkness made visible’,” Ward said in a statement.

Genzel is a director at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany and a professor at the University of California, and Ghez is a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of California.

Published in Dawn, October 7th, 2020