At least three members of the ethnic Hazara community and two other Shias were killed, while one other was seriously injured on Quetta's Kasi road on Monday morning as unidentified armed men opened fire at their vehicle, police said.
According to the police, armed motorcyclists sprayed bullets at the vehicle and fled the scene unhurt.
Police reached the spot and started an investigation into the incident.
The Hazara community staged a protest at Alamdar road and demanded protection while chanting slogans against the government and the law enforcement agencies.
The protesters dispersed after Balochistan Home Minister Sarfaraz Bugti visited them and promised them the government's support.
Balochistan has been experiencing incidents of violence and targeted killings since more than a decade. More than 1,400 incidents targeting the minority Shia and Hazara community have taken place in the province during the past 15 years.
While sectarian terrorism in Balochistan has disproportionately targeted the Hazara community, easily identifiable because of their distinctive physical appearance, other Shias — especially pilgrims travelling to and from Iran — have not been spared either.
Correction: An earlier version of the story incorrectly mentioned that all five of the people killed belonged to the Hazara Shia community, the error is regretted.