I WONDER what the concerned students would be thinking of the government’s directive to some teachers of the Pak-Turk school system to leave the country. I guess they would consider it political interference. If so, they would be wiser than the experts who look upon education and politics as separate domains.
The real lesson that the affected students need to internalise is that the incident involving their teachers is not unique. Since schools are not teaching students how to think, exploring what has been happening to schools might induce some much-needed reflection.
The reality is that education has always been subjected to political interventions. That may be one reason why history is no longer taught in our schools. The less one knows of the past the less likely it would be to decipher the ways in which education is manipulated to advance political interests.
Some political interventions can be considered incidental to education. The issue of deportation of the Turkish teachers falls in that category. The sole objective of the government was to please one man and it was mere coincidence that the cause of the latter’s disapproval was associated with schools. The personnel could just as easily have been part of another industry, say health. Even so, given that the foundation operated a little over two dozen schools in the country, the impact on education as a sector remains marginal.
Whoever controls what students believe and how they think controls the future.
Another political intervention of this type was the outright nationalisation of educational institutions in 1972. An ideological rationale, which had its supporters and detractors, was offered for the intervention. In this case, however, the impact was spread across the sector and most educationists consider it one cause of the subsequent decline in the quality of education in the country.
A second type of intervention pertains to what students are allowed to do in educational institutions. It is deeply ironic that those who lauded the intense politicisation of students at Aligarh University during the Pakistan Movement concluded it was not such a good idea after all once Pakistan was achieved. Not surprisingly, interventions in education remain subservient to political ends.
A third, quite different, type of political intervention has to do with influencing the purpose of education itself. One may consider Macaulay’s intervention in 1835, changing the medium of instruction in British India from local languages to English, to be a classic case of such an intervention — the stated purpose being to form a “a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellect”. It is ironical that those who vilify Macaulay have done nothing to reverse the intervention after the British departed. The politics of that contradiction remains to be fully explained.
Ziaul Haq’s contribution, infusing education with morality and Pakistan Studies, is another example of such a political intervention. Yet another is the funding from the Middle East to promote an alternative education in support of a political ideology. And how many people know that in the mid-1980s textbooks for schools in Afghanistan promoting jihad were produced in America under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development at the University of Nebraska and routed through Pakistan? Whatever one’s position on these interventions there is little doubt that they have quite significantly altered the very nature and purpose of education in the country.
All kinds of political interventions are of interest but the third type merits special attention. A botched nationalisation of education can be reversed, as it has in Pakistan, and sensible measures can retrieve the institutional damage. Student unions can be reintroduced in colleges. But altering the nature and content of education has much longer-lasting consequences — it produces cohorts of decision-makers who by virtue of their orientation rule out the very possibility of certain types of policy reversals.
An obvious example is the production of the class of persons envisaged by Macaulay. It was unsurprising that the departure of the British witnessed no radical discontinuity in the colonial system of education — the class whose privileges rested on the knowledge of English had little incentive to empower speakers of native languages.
Similarly, Ziaul Haq’s ‘children’, now ensconced in key positions have virtually taken curriculum reform off the table. No number of studies demonstrating problems with the existing curricula and pedagogy can get past the mindset generated by that intervention.
These examples should make clear why education is such a fiercely contested political domain. The most vital resource of a country is its students who will graduate to become the next generation of decision-makers — they are virtually its future. Whoever controls what these students believe and how they think (or do not think) controls the future as well barring unforeseen events or unintended consequences. The stakes are very high; not surprisingly, interventions to mould education to political ends are endemic.
One should keep in mind that countries that are globally competitive, or aspire to that status, are forced to promote scientific and technological innovation which, by its very nature, requires the freedom to think openly. Hence the existence of top-tier educational institutions in the US, for example. But the outpouring of innovations comes mixed with intellectual questioning which is an outcome of the same freedom to think openly. This dissent has to be tolerated and managed with sensitivity.
Rulers in countries like Pakistan with a primary focus on maintaining the status quo and no real intent to be globally competitive see no reason to promote open minds that can only result in the citizenry asking difficult questions. Hence the continued interventions in education to stifle the promotion of critical thinking and muzzle the possibility of any dissent that could threaten the political status quo.
If our students had read Bulleh Shah or Kabir at school they would have been equipped with the tools for self-reflection. The fact that they do not is as telling a clue as one might need to figure out the purpose being served by our present-day system of education.
The writer moderates The South Asian Idea Weblog.
Published in Dawn December 10th, 2016