Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP)

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Roots: Formed in 1967 in Lahore by 39-year-old Sindhi politician, Z A. Bhutto, and veteran Marxist ideologue, J A. Rahim(1).

Conceived as a populist left-wing political party to challenge the Ayub Khan dictatorship (1958-69), the PPP soon grew into becoming an inclusive platform for progressives of all shapes and sizes, hue and colour.

By the time it went into the 1970 general election, the party had developed four internal lobbies. The most prominent (at the time) was its radical left-wing led by Marxist and socialist theorists and Maoist radicals. The other powerful lobby in the party was led by ‘Islamic Socialists’ who had fused Arab Socialism and Marxism with certain egalitarian notions of the Qu’ran(2) .

The third intra-party faction consisted of ‘progressive’ members of the landed elite, and the fourth, the smallest faction, consisted of moderate religionists.

  Z A. Bhutto shares a joke with party ideologues. In the front of the image is J A. Rahim.
Z A. Bhutto shares a joke with party ideologues. In the front of the image is J A. Rahim.

The party contested the 1970 election on a socialist manifesto and managed to sweep the National and Provincial election in the Sindh and Punjab provinces (in West Pakistan).

The breakaway and a loss to India in the 1971 Indo-Pak war forced a group of military officers to dismiss General Yahya Khan (who had replaced Ayub in 1969) and invite Bhutto to form the government(3).

ZAB addressing a large rally during the PPP’s campaign trail in 1970.
ZAB addressing a large rally during the PPP’s campaign trail in 1970.

ZAB addressing a leftist student rally in Karachi in 1970.
ZAB addressing a leftist student rally in Karachi in 1970.

The party’s left-wing dominated the proceedings between 1972 and 1974, but its influence began to erode after some of its members were dismissed from the party on ‘disciplinary grounds.’

From 1974 onwards, the policy-making largely fell into the lap of the PPP’s conservative wing that gradually began to shift the party’s ideological orientation.

By 1976 the party’s left-wing had all but withered away and in its manifesto for the 1977 election, the PPP downplayed the word socialism(4) and brought in an increasing number of industrialists and members of the landed elite into the party’s fold.

The party swept the 1977 election. But the right-wing alliance of nine anti-PPP parties, the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA), refused to accept the results and accused the regime of rigging the polls.

The PNA unleashed a violent protest movement in the urban centres of the country demanding the resignation of the government and the imposition of ‘Nizam-e-Mustapha’ (Sharia).

Amidst the turmoil, General Ziaul Haq removed Bhutto and imposed the country’s third Martial Law (July 1977).

Members of the student-wing of Jamat-i-Islami, the IJT, take out an anti-Bhutto regime at Gordon College, Rawalpindi, during the 1977 PNA movement. The rally is being led by the then IJT leader, Shiekh Rashid Ahmed. He went on to join the Zia regime and Youth Minister.
Members of the student-wing of Jamat-i-Islami, the IJT, took out an anti-Bhutto  rally at Gordon College, Rawalpindi, during the 1977 PNA movement. The rally was led by the then IJT leader, Sheikh Rashid Ahmed. He went on to join the Zia regime as Youth Minister.

Front page of Dawn reporting the imposition of Zia’s Martial Law. Though Zia promised fresh election in 90 days, he backed out of the commitment and decided to rule the country as dictator for the next eleven years.
Front page of Dawn reporting the imposition of Zia’s Martial Law. Though Zia promised fresh election in 90 days, he backed out of the commitment and decided to rule the country as dictator for the next eleven years.

Bhutto was executed through a sham trial in 1979. During the military regime, the PPP’s radical left-wing revived itself with the support and urging of Bhutto’s widow, Begum Nusrat Bhutto(5).

Begum Nusrat Bhutto being escorted away from a rally she held after ZAB’s arrest in July 1977.
Begum Nusrat Bhutto being escorted away from a rally she held after ZAB’s arrest in July 1977.

In 1981 the PPP formed a 10-party anti-Zia alliance, the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (MRD), and was in the forefront of all the major protest movements that took place against the Zia dictatorship.

Hundreds of party workers were arrested, flogged, tortured or simply vanished.

A woman activist of the PPP’s student-wing, the PSF, clashes with the police during a rally against Zia’s draconian laws (Lahore, 1981).
A woman activist of the PPP’s student-wing, the PSF, clashes with the police during a rally against Zia’s draconian laws (Lahore, 1981).

But just when Zia had thought that he had broken the party’s back, its new leader, 32-year-old Benazir (daughter of Z A. Bhutto), returned from exile in 1986.

She directly challenged the Zia regime by holding huge rallies in Lahore and Karachi. She also dismissed a number of her father’s old contemporaries from the party and then reinserted the word socialism in the party manifesto.

After Zia’s controversial death in August 1988, Benazir led the PPP to win the 1988 election.

Benazir waves to the crowd from a bogie of a train during her 1988 election campaign.
Benazir waves to the crowd from a bogie of a train during her 1988 election campaign.

She led the party to two election victories (1988 and 1993), but both times her government was dismissed as a consequence of dizzying power games between the PPP, the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), and the establishment-backed presidents, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, and Farooq Ahmed Laghari(6).

Benazir went into exile and led the party from abroad during the Parvez Musharraf military regime that took over power in October 1999. The PPP emerged as the second largest party in the 2002 election.

In 2007 Benazir returned to Pakistan and unfolded the PPP’s new ideological orientation, describing the party to be a democratic left-liberal entity that would reconcile its differences with other democratic forces, work to end the military’s intervention in politics and rid Pakistan of religious extremism and terrorism(7).

In December 2007 she was assassinated by members of Pakistan’s most extreme militant Islamist outfit, the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), soon after she had given a speech at a PPP rally in Rawalpindi.

Her husband Asif Ali Zardari took over the leadership of the party and led it to win the February 2008 general election.

He formed a collation government with two other parties, the Awami National Party (ANP) and the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM).

The National Assembly elected PPP’s Yusuf Raza Gilani as prime minister and Zardari was elected as the country’s new president.

Asif Ali Zardari
Asif Ali Zardari

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Fruit

Electoral History (National Assembly)(8)

  • 1970 Election (West Pakistan)
Seats won: 81 (out of 138 National Assembly Seats) Formed government

ZAB in consultation with party members right after the 1970 election results were announced.
ZAB in consultation with party members right after the 1970 election results were announced.

• 1977 Election

Seats won: 155 (out of 200 NA Seats)

The election was declared null and void by the military regime that toppled the government and imposed Martial Law.

• 1988 Election

Seats won: 93 (out of 204 NA seats) Formed government.

Benazir waves to the cheering crowd after he party won the most seats in the 1988 election.
Benazir waves to the cheering crowd after her party won the most seats in the 1988 election.

• 1990 Election

Seats won: 44 (out of 206 NA seats)

• 1993 Election

Seats won: 86 (out of 202 NA seats) Formed Government.

• 1997 Election

Seats won: 18 (out of 204 NA seats)

• 2002 Election

Seats won: 64 (out of 271 NA seats)

• 2008 Election

Seats won: 95 (out of 268 NA seats) Formed government.

PPP supporters dance to celebrate the party’s victory in the 2008 election.
PPP supporters dance to celebrate the party’s victory in the 2008 election.

Areas of electoral influence: Sindh; South Punjab; Parts of KP and Balochistan.

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Juice

Ideological Evolution Socialist/Populist (1967-74); Centrist/Populist (1974-77); Socialist (1978-86); Social Democrat (1988-93); Centre-left (1993-2002); Liberal-Left (2002- ).

Views on religion: Quasi-Secular, but has always been flexible enough to accommodate certain aspects of Political Islam, Sufi Islam(9) and Modernist Reformist Islam(10).

ZAB showering rose petals on the grave of Sufi saint, Data Gamj Bakhsh, in Lahore (1974).
ZAB showering rose petals on the grave of Sufi saint, Data Ganj Bakhsh, in Lahore (1974).

Youth Wings: Peoples Students Federation (PSF) – formed in 1972; Peoples Youth Organization (PYO) – formed in 1984.

Flag of Peoples Youth Organization
Flag of Peoples Youth Organization

Party website: Pakistan Peoples Party  Peoples Youth Organization  2013 election manifesto 

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Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N)

Roots

PML-N-flag
The immediate roots of the PML-N lie in the merging of various PML factions in 1985 into becoming a single entity again. The merging took place on the behest of Pakistan’s third military dictator, General Ziaul Haq(11) who needed a civilian expression of his rule in a handpicked National Assembly.

The factions that came together to form the 1985 version of PML had historical links with two PML groups that had emerged in 1962 during the Ayub Khan dictatorship (Council and Convention).

PML-Convention was pro-Ayub whereas PML-Council oopposed him.

Both the Convention and Council Leagues were mostly made up of members who had been active in Pakistan’s first ruling party, the Muslim League that in turn was an extension of the All India Muslim League (AIML).

AIML was the leading Muslim party in undivided India during the ‘Pakistan Movement’. Though formed in 1906 to represent the economic, political and social interests of India’s Muslims, the AIML shot to prominence from the 1930s onwards.

It claimed to be the sole representative of the Muslims of India, a claim that was bitterly disputed by the Muslim leaders of the Indian National Congress as well as by fundamentalist Islamic parties such as the Majlis-e-Ahrar, Jamiat Ulema Islam Hind and the Jamat-e-Islami(12).

AIML simply became the Muslim League after the creation of Pakistan in 1947. And even though (or since) it also became the new country’s first ruling party, it was soon riddled by serious infighting and power games, especially after Jinnah’s death in 1948.

Top League leaders Jinnah (left) and Liaquat Ali Khan (right) share a smoke just a few days after the creation of Pakistan. Jinnah became the country’s Governor General and Ali became the Prime Minister. Jinnah died in 1948 and Ali was assassinated in 1951.
Top League leaders Jinnah (left) and Liaquat Ali Khan (right) share a smoke just a few days after the creation of Pakistan. Jinnah became the country’s governor general and Ali became the prime minister. Jinnah died in 1948 and Ali was assassinated in 1951.

During the 1970 general election, three prominent ML factions contested the historic polls: Convention, Council and Qayyum League (ML-Q).

All the three factions were routed by the PPP, National Awami Part (NAP) and the Bengali nationalist party, the Awami League in the election, even though the Qayyum League did comparatively well in the former NWFP.

The Q League merged with the PPP(13) after the later came into power in 1972.

In 1973 the Convention and Council Leagues merged to become Functional Muslim League. The party became part of the nine-party anti-PPP electoral alliance, the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA) for the 1977 election.

Head of Functional Muslim League Pir Pagaro talking to media men at the Karachi Press Club in 1977.
Head of Functional Muslim League Pir Pagaro talking to media men at the Karachi Press Club in 1977.

In 1985 Zia urged the head of the Functional League, Pir Pagaro, to turn the party into a united front by merging all PML factions.

This was also when for the first time the PML shifted radically towards adopting overt religious symbolism and rhetoric.

Muhammad Khan Junejo (left) with Ziaul Haq and Ghulam Ishaq Khan (1985). Junejo became the head of the PML that was revamped by Zia.
Muhammad Khan Junejo (left) with Ziaul Haq and Ghulam Ishaq Khan (1985). Junejo became the head of the PML that was revamped by Zia.

In the 1988 election the PML became an important part of the right-wing nine-party alliance the Islami Jamhoori Ittihad (IJI). The alliance was narrowly defeated by the PPP.

In 1993 the PML split again when Mian Nawaz Sharif broke away to form the PML-Nawaz (PML-N).

PML-N became the largest faction and the most popular. It came into power (as IJI) in 1990 and then (as PML-N) after the 1997 election.

Nawaz Sharif as PM poses for a picture with the Pakistan cricket team that won the 1992 Cricket World Cut (under Imran Khan’s captaincy). Khan joined politics in 1996 and today his party his posing the stiffest electoral challenge to the PML-N in the Punjab.
Nawaz Sharif as PM poses for a picture with the Pakistan cricket team that won the 1992 Cricket World Cut (under Imran Khan’s captaincy). Khan joined politics in 1996 and today his party is posing the stiffest electoral challenge to the PML-N in the Punjab.

Between 1990 and 1997, PML-N emphasised on being a quasi-Islamic and pro-business party. However, after its government was toppled in 1999 by General Parvez Musharraf, PML-N (throughout the 2000s) revived itself as a staunchly pro-democracy party.

It remains to be the largest PML faction with the most electoral appeal compared to other existing PML factions, rapidly evolving in the last decade to become a prominent democratic force in the country – especially in the Punjab and in the Hindko-speaking areas of KP.

Election pundits and a number of popularity polls have put PML-N in the front to become the majority party after this year’s May 11 election(14).

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Fruit

Electoral history (National Assembly)(15)

• 1988 Election

Seats won: 54 (out of 204 NA seats) (16)

• 1990 Election

Seats won: 105 (out of 206 NA seats) (17) Formed government.

Nawaz Sharif (third from left) with MQM chief, Altaf Hussain (second from left), in Karachi soon after Nawaz was elected as PM in 1990.
Nawaz Sharif (third from left) with MQM chief, Altaf Hussain (second from left), in Karachi soon after Nawaz was elected as PM in 1990.

• 1993 Election

Seats won: 73 (out of 202 NA seats)

• 1997 Election

Seats won: 135 (out of 204 NA seats)

Nawaz Sharif behind bars at a police lock-up after his government was toppled in a military coup in 1999. He was later sent into exile.
Nawaz Sharif behind bars at a police lock-up after his government was toppled in a military coup in 1999. He was later sent into exile.

• 2002 Election

Seats won: 15 (out of 271 NA seats)

• 2008 Election

Seats won: 72 (out of 268 NA seats)

Nawaz Sharif with PPP Chairperson, late Benazir Bhutto, in London, 2006.  The two former foes signed a Charter of  Democracy and vowed to work together to keep the military out of politics.
Nawaz Sharif with PPP Chairperson, late Benazir Bhutto, in London, 2006. The two former foes signed a Charter of Democracy and vowed to work together to keep the military out of politics.

Areas of electoral influence: Punjab; parts of South Punjab; Hindko-speaking areas of KP.

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 Juice

Ideological evolution: Quasi-Islamic/Conservative (1988-93); Quasi-Islamic/Conservative/Populist (1993-2000); Centre-Right/Populist (2002 - ).

Nawaz Sharif in 2009. His party is popular among Punjab’s business and trader classes.
Nawaz Sharif in 2009. His party is popular among Punjab’s business and trader classes.

Views on religion: Politically moderate but socially conservative, even though recently some liberal leaders have been allowed to come to the front.

Over the years the party is trying to shed its old ‘Ziaist’/Islamic image and cultivate a more moderate and democratic appeal, even though in the last five years it has been accused by opponents of being vague and uncommitted in its stand against religious extremism and terrorism in Pakistan.

Nawaz Sharif with his handpicked president, Rafiq Tarar, who was a staunch member of the apolitical Islamic evangelical Islamic movement, the Tableeghi Jamat.
Nawaz Sharif with his handpicked president, Rafiq Tarar, who was a staunch member of the apolitical Islamic evangelical movement, the Tableeghi Jamat.

Columnist Ayaz Amir was one of the most liberal and secular leaders of the PML-N. He was however refused a party ticket for the 2013 election on the behest of the party’s ‘hawks.’
Columnist Ayaz Amir was one of the most liberal and secular leaders of the PML-N. He was however refused a party ticket for the 2013 election on the behest of the party’s ‘hawks.’

Youth Wing: Muslim Students Federation-Nawaz (MSF-N) formed: 1993; Muslim Youth Organization (MYO) formed: 2009.

The MSF flag
The MSF flag

Party Websites: Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz Muslim Students Federation  2013 Election Manifesto

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 Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf

PTI-FLAG
Roots

PTI was formed by former Pakistan cricket captain, Imran Khan, in 1996. The formation of the party was the political expression of the spiritual transformation Khan had been going through ever since the death of his mother (from cancer) and the Pakistan cricket team’s victory in the 1992 Cricket World Cup (under his captaincy).

Throughout his cricketing career (1971-92), Khan had opted for a flamboyant and secular lifestyle and showed little interest in politics.

Imran Khan as cricket captain: The spiritual wilderness years.
Imran Khan as cricket captain: The spiritual wilderness years.

Imran Khan with the World Cup, 1992
Imran Khan with the World Cup, 1992

His religious transformation also coincided with him coming under the wings of former ISI Chief and close ally of Ziaul Haq, General Hamid Gul.

After Gul was eased out from the ISI by the first Benazir Bhutto government (1988-90), he had formed a party called Tehreek-e-Ittihad and was trying to rope in Khan to join the party(19).

However, not only did Khan moved to form his own party, he married Jamima Goldsmith, a British national. The marriage repulsed Gul’s advances to co-opt Khan into his party and Khan took his own party into the 1997 election to challenge the supremacy of the country’s two main parties, the PPP and PML-N.

The party faced a resounding defeat.

In 1999 when General Parvez Musrraf toppled the Nawaz Sharif government in a military coup, Khan hailed the decision.

PTI managed to win just one National Assembly seat in the 2002 election, but during this period Khan took back his support for Musharraf when the General decided to join the US ‘War on Terror.’

He also became close to the Jamat-i-Islami and echoed the Jamat’s anti-war mantra, emphasising that the conflict was not Pakistan’s responsibility.

But whereas his party remained to be nothing more than a one-man crusade, he did manage to organise an effective youth-wing of the party, the Insaf Students Federation (ISF).

PTI boycotted the 2008 election and was merely drifting as a ‘more good looking B Team of the Jamat-e-Islami,(20)’ when in late 2011, Khan surprised the media and other parties by managing to hold a massive rally in Lahore.

Khan’s constant presence on Urdu TV channels, the groundwork done by ISF, and the prominent role of PTI activists in the social media greatly helped PTI experience a sudden groundswell.

Supporters at a PTI rally in Lahore.
Supporters at a PTI rally in Lahore.

Khan has mixed leftist symbolism with right-wing rhetoric to attack the PPP and PML-N and claims that his party is now in a position to actually sweep the 2013 election.

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Fruit

Electoral History (National Assembly)

• 1997 Election

Seats won: None

• 2002 Election

Seats won: 1 (out of 271 NA seats)

• 2008 Election

Boycott

Areas of electoral influence (possible): Central and northern Punjab; KP.

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 Juice

Ideological evolution: Right-wing (1996-2002); Centre-Right (2002-2008); Centre-Right/Populist (2010 - ).

Views on Religion Moderate, even though PTI has come under constant criticism for playing the role of an ‘apologist’ for the Taliban. Nevertheless, PTI has been actively criticising Sunni sectarian organisations for attacks on the Shia community.

Khan continues to clarify that his party’s relationship with religion is like that of Jinnah’s and Iqbal’s.

He usually uses Islamic symbolism in his speeches. Most of his critics label PTI as a right-wing party whereas some have gone on to suggest that Khan is using religion like the ‘socialist’ Z A. Bhutto did in the 1970s.

Khan addresses an anti-drone rally near South Waziristan, 2012.
Khan addresses an anti-drone rally near South Waziristan, 2012.

Khan with one of his favourite pet dogs in Islamabad.
Khan with one of his favourite pet dogs in Islamabad.

Youth Wing: Insaf Students Federation (ISF)

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Party website: Pakistan Thereek-e-Insaaf Insaaf Students Federation 2013 Election Manifesto

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Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM)

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Roots

MQM was formed as Mohajir Qaumi Movement in 1984 by Altaf Hussain and Azeem Ahmed Tariq as a party representing the political and economic interests of Sindh’s Mohajir (Urdu-speaking) population.

Altaf and Azeem were students at the Karachi University in 1978 where they had first formed the All Pakistan Mohajir Students Federation (APMSO).

The launching of the APMSO outside the Arts Lobby at the Karachi University, June 1978.
The launching of the APMSO outside the Arts Lobby at the Karachi University, June 1978.

The much overlooked reason behind the APMSO’s evolution into giving birth to the MQM is an economic one. According to famous Sindhi scholar, Ibrahim Joyo, ‘Punjabi economic hegemony’ increased immensely in Sindh during the dictatorship of Ziaul Haq(22).

This situation had a negative impact on Karachi’s leading business communities (Memons, Gujaratis and other non-Punjabi business outfits).

In such a situation these communities formed the Maha Sindh (MS) — an organisation set up to protect the interests of Karachi’s Memon, Gujarati and Mohajir businessmen and traders.

MS then encouraged and financed the formation of a ‘street-strong’ Karachi-based party. This party arrived in the shape of the MQM.

Altaf Hussain addressing a rally in Karachi in 1987.
Altaf Hussain addressing a rally in Karachi in 1987.

The MQM has continued to win the most seats in Karachi across all elections since 1988 – despite the fact that due to some of its aggression against the media and opponents in Karachi, the state conducted at least three concentrated armed operations against it in the 1990s.

Relatives cry over the body of a MQM worker killed during the military operation against the MQM in 1992.
Relatives cry over the body of a MQM worker killed during the military operation against the MQM in 1992.

After it changed its name to Muttahida Qaumi Movement (in 1998), the MQM began to shed off its ethnic skin.

The MQM supported the Musharraf dictatorship (1999-2008) and took this opportunity to regenerate and reorganize itself after the chaos of the 1990s.

In 2008 it became a coalition partner of the PPP-led regime. Like the PPP and ANP, the MQM has come under direct attack from extremist organizations.

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Fruit

Electoral History (National Assembly)

• 1988 Election

Seats won: 12 Became part of PPP-led government. Quit in 1990.

Altaf Hussain addressing an election rally in Karachi, 1988.
Altaf Hussain addressing an election rally in Karachi, 1988.

• 1990 Election

Seats won: 15 Became part of PML/IJI-led government. Quit in 1992.

• 1993 Election

Boycotted NA Election.

• 1997 Election

Seats won: 12 Became part of PML-N led government. Quit in 1998.

• 2002 Election

Seats won: 13 Became part of the PML-Q led government.

MQM’s Mustafa Kamal was elected Karachi’s Mayor in 2006. He rose to become one of the city’s most popular officials.
MQM’s Mustafa Kamal was elected Karachi’s Mayor in 2006. He rose to become one of the city’s most popular officials.

• 2008 Election

Seats won: 19 Became part of PPP-led government.

MQM supporters rejoice after the party swept the e2008 election in the country’s largest city, Karachi.
MQM supporters rejoice after the party swept the 2008 election in the country’s largest city, Karachi.

Areas of electoral influence: Karachi; Hyderabad (Sindh).

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Juice

Ideological evolution Centre-left (1984-88); Centrist (1990-2002); Liberal (2002 - ).

Views on religion Secular. Overtly opposed to radical Islamic groups and thought. Sometimes adopts Sindh’s traditional Sufi Islamic symbolism.

Poster of an MQM rally at the shrine of Sufi saint Shah Abdul Latif in Bhitshah, Sindh.
Poster of an MQM rally at the shrine of Sufi saint Shah Abdul Latif in Bhitshah, Sindh.

Youth Wing: All Pakistan Muttahida Students Organization (APMSO)

APMSO emblem
APMSO emblem

Party Websites: MQM APMSO 2013 Election Manifesto 

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Awami National Party (ANP)

pk}anp
Roots

The roots of the ANP lie in the National Awami Party (NAP). NAP was formed in 1957 by leftist Pushtun, Sindhi, Baloch and Bengali nationalists and Marxist Punjabi and Mohajir elements.

In the 1960s NAP was the country’s largest leftist party until the arrival of the PPP in 1967.

NAP mainly comprised of Pushtun and Baloch nationalist leadership. It won a majority of seats in the former NWFP and Balochistan in the 1970 election and formed coalition governments in these provinces.

People gather outside NAP office in Quetta to celebrate the party’s victory in Balochistan during the 1970 election.
People gather outside NAP office in Quetta to celebrate the party’s victory in Balochistan during the 1970 election.

In 1973 the PPP/Z A. Bhutto regime dismissed the NAP regime in Balochistan, accusing it of instigating a separatist movement in Balochistan.

The NAP-led coalition government in the NWFP resigned in protest.

NAP leader and Governor of Balochistan, Ghous Bakhsh Bezinjo, escorting foreign delegates at the Quetta Airport in 1973.
NAP leader and Governor of Balochistan, Ghous Bakhsh Bezinjo, escorting foreign delegates at the Quetta Airport in 1973.

In 1975 the Bhutto regime got the Supreme Court to ban NAP after a PPP Minister was assassinated in Peshawar(24).

NAP leaders who were released from jail after the Bhutto regime was toppled by General Zia in 1977, formed a new party, the National Democratic Party (NDP).

However, the NDP split on the question of joining the PPP-led anti-Zia alliance, MRD.

In 1986, Baloch, Sindhi and Pushtun leaders revived NAP, this time calling it the Awami National Party.

Wali Khan: The founding member of ANP speaking at the party’s launch in 1986. Sitting behind him (far right) is his father, veteran Pushtun nationalist leader, Bacha Khan.
Wali Khan: The founding member of ANP speaking at the party’s launch in 1986. Sitting behind him (far right) is his father, veteran Pushtun nationalist leader, Bacha Khan.

However, after Zia’s death in 1988, ANP’s Sindhi and Baloch leaders broke away to form their own parties and ANP became an exclusive Pushtun nationalist party.

But its electoral fortunes have fluctuated. After witnessing a high in this respect in the 1990s, ANP lost ground and orientation in the early 2000s. However, it got back on its feet again during the 2008 election and delivered its best results in an election thus far.

The 2008 election saw ANP’s electoral fortunes rise dramatically in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). What’s more, for the first time it managed to also win a couple of Provincial Assembly seats in Karachi.

Nevertheless, its government in the KP was constantly challenged by extremist Islamist groups that have assassinated a number of ANP leaders.

ANP (along with the MQM and PPP) is under direct threat from these groups.

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Fruit

Electoral History (National Assembly)(25)

• 1988 Election

Seats won: 2

• 1990 Election

Seats won: 6

Joined the PML/IJI led government

• 1993 Election

Seats won: 3

• 1997 Election

Seats won: 9

Became part of the PML-N government. Quit in 1998.

• 2002 Election

Seats won: None

• 2008 Election

Seats won: 10

Became part of the PPP-led government.

Areas of electoral influence: KP; and parts of Balochistan and Karachi.

Head of ANP, Asfandyar Wali speaking at an ANP convention in Peshawar.
Head of ANP, Asfandyar Wali speaking at an ANP convention in Peshawar.

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Juice

Ideological Orientation (As NAP): Socialist/Marxist (1967-75); (As ANP): Socialist (1986-88); Progressive/Pushtun Nationalist (1990- ).

Views on religion Secular/Humanist. Overtly opposed to radical Islamic groups and thought.

A recent poster of ANP showing ANP members assassinated by extreme Islamist organizations.
A recent poster of ANP showing ANP members assassinated by extreme Islamist organizations.

Youth wing: Pushtun Students Federation

Emblem of Pushtun Students Federation
Emblem of Pushtun Students Federation

Party Websites: ANP  Pushtun Students Federation 2013 Election Manifesto 

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Jamiat Ulema Islam-Fazal (JUI-F)

pk}jui
Roots

JUI-F’s roots lie in Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind (JUH), a conservative Sunni (Deobandi) party in India.

JUH was opposed to Jinnah’s All India Muslim League and (along with two other Islamic parties, the Jamat-i-Islami (JI) and Majlis-e-Ahrar), accused the Muslim League of being a secular organisation of ‘misguided Muslims.’

During the all-important election of 1945 in the Punjab in which the Muslim League needed to win big, Jinnah gave the green light to sponsor the creation of a pro-Muslim League religious party(26) that could divide the religious vote of the JUH and the Ahrar.

Thus emerged the Jamiat Ulema Islam (JUI) which, at the time, had leadership from both Deobandi as well as the Sunni Barelvi Muslm communities.

However, after Pakistan’s creation in 1947, the Barelvi leadership of the party formed its own party and the JUI became a strictly Deobandi Sunni Muslim outfit.

Shabir Ahmad Usmani: The founder of JUI
Shabir Ahmad Usmani: The founder of JUI

JUI was strongly opposed to the fundamentalist JI and during the 1970 election it became the only religious party that did not oppose the PPP and NAP’s socialist programs.

In fact, JUI showed great interest in forming an electoral alliance with the PPP , but the PPP(27) politely declined. After the election the JUI formed coalition governments in Balochistan and NWFP with the secular and socialist NAP.

Chief of JUI, Mufti Mehmood, with Z A. Bhutto, 1977.
Chief of JUI, Mufti Mehmood, with Z A. Bhutto, 1977.

The JUI turned against the Bhutto regime when it dismissed the NAP-led provincial government in 1973. In 1977, JUI became a leading member of the nine-party anti-PPP alliance, the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA).

After the Bhutto regime was toppled by General Ziaul Haq in July 1977, JUI exited from the PNA when some of its parties, especially the JI, decided to join the Zia regime.

In 1981 JUI joined the PPP-led anti-Zia alliance, the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (MRD).

Fazalur Rehman who became chief of JUI after Mufti Mehmood’s death seen here (right) sitting with Benazir and Nusrat Bhutto in 1982.
Fazalur Rehman who became chief of JUI after Mufti Mehmood’s death seen here (right) sitting with Benazir and Nusrat Bhutto in 1982.

In the mid-1980s, at the height of Zia’s ‘Islamization’, some members of the JUI and its student-wing (the Jamiat Taleba Islam), broke away to form the radical Sunni sectarian organization, the Sipah Sahaba Pakistan (SSP).

JUI had largely been a moderate Islamic party, but from the late 1980s onwards it became increasingly conservative, especially when it took control of the seminaries that indoctrinated religious students who rose up to become the Taliban.

JUI supported the Musharraf dictatorship and became part of a large religious alliance, the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) that swept the 2002 election in NWFP and Balochistan.

The MMA collapsed just before the 2008 election and the JUI contested the election with a few minor religious parties.

___________________

Fruit

Electoral History (National Assembly)

• 1970 Election Seats won: 7 Formed coalition governments with NAP in NWFP and Balochistan.

• 1977 Election Seats won (As part of Pakistan National Alliance): 36

• 1988 Election Seats won: 7

• 1990 Election Seats won: 6

• 1993 Election Seats won: 4 Became part of PPP-led coalition government

• 1997 Election Seats won: 2

• 2002 Election Seats won (As part of Muttahida Majlis Amal): 63 Formed governments in NWFP and Balochistan.

• 2008 Election Seats won: 6 Became part of PPP-led coalition government. Quit in 2011.

Fazalur Rehman speaking at a JUI rally in 2011.
Fazalur Rehman speaking at a JUI rally in 2011.

Areas of Electoral Influence: KP (rural/semi-rural areas); Balochistan (Rural/semi-rural).

__________________

Juice

Ideological Orientation Moderate/Progressive Islamic (1947-73); Democratic-Islamic (1978-88); Islamic (1990-96); Fundamentalist (1999-2008); Islamic (2010 - ).

Views on religion Conservative and at times fundamentalist, but pro-democracy.

Youth Wing: Jamiat Taleba Islam (JTI)

Flag of Jamiat Taleba Islam.
Flag of Jamiat Taleba Islam.

Party website: JUI-F 2013 Election Manifesto

_____________________

Jamat-i-Islami (JI)

Jamaat-e-Islami_Pakistan_flag
Roots

Formed in 1941 by Islamic scholar Abul Ala Maududi as a modern fundamentalist Islamic party.

JI was staunchly opposed to Jinnah’s Muslim nationalism, suggesting that nationalism was a European concept that had no place in Islam.

Another problem Maududi had with Pakistan was that he considered the new country to be in a state of jahiliyat(28) – Arab word meaning ‘ignorance’ and describing the time in Mecca before the arrival of Islam.

Nevertheless, the party moved to the newly created Pakistan in 1947 and made its first dramatic entry into the new country’s politics by joining the Majlis-e-Ahrar in an anti-Ahmadi movement in Lahore in 1953.

Abul Ala Maududi delivering a speech in 1955.
Abul Ala Maududi delivering a speech in 1955.

Maududi was arrested for inciting religious hatred and rioting and sentenced to death. The sentence was soon overturned.

Lacking electoral pull, the JI recruited educated urbanites into its fold in an attempt to infiltrate the bureaucracy and the vernacular Urdu print media(29).

JI was banned in 1963 by the Ayub dictatorship when it vehemently opposed the regime’s overtly secular policies and liberal interpretation of Islam.

The ban was soon lifted. During the 1970 election, JI aggressively ran a vigorous campaign against leftist parties (particularly the PPP), and in its manifesto claimed that voting for socialist party was against the teachings of Islam.

Maududi in a meeting with some politicians on the eve of the 1970 election.
Maududi in a meeting with some politicians on the eve of the 1970 election.

The campaign came to a naught when the JI was routed in the 1970 election.

In 1974 it again led the agitation against the Ahmadi community. This time it was successful in getting the community relegated as a non-Muslim minority.

In 1977 the party headed a nine-party election alliance against the PPP regime. The alliance was routed, but it refused to accept the election result. It then began a protest campaign on the streets that led to the imposition of Pakistan's third Martial Law.

The JI joined the reactionary Ziaul Haq dictatorship and was one of the first parties to organise jihadists against the Soviet-backed regime in Afghanistan.

During the 1988 election, JI joined the nine-party right-wing alliance, the Islami Jamhoori Ittihad (IJI).

Amir of JI, late Qazi Hussain Ahmed (right) with  Nawaz Sharif.
Amir of JI, late Qazi Hussain Ahmed (right) with Nawaz Sharif.

It quit the alliance after the 1990 election and went solo during the 1993 election but faced defeat.

It boycotted the 1997 election and then went on to hail the military coup against the second Nawaz Sharif/PML-N regime.

In 2002 it became part of the right-wing religious alliance, the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA). The alliance fell apart before the 2008 election.

The JI boycotted the 2008 election.

____________________

Fruit

Electoral History (National Assembly)

• 1970 Election Seats won: 4

• 1977 Election Seats won (As part of Pakistan National Alliance): 36

• 1988 Election Seats won (as part of Islami Jamhoori Ittihad) 56

• 1990 Election Seats won: (as part of Islami Jamhoori Ittihad 106 Became part of the PML-led government. Quit in 1992.

• 1993 Election Seats won: 3

• 1997 Election Boycotted.

• 2002 Election Seats won (As part of Muttahida Majlis Amal): 63 Formed governments in NWFP and Balochistan.

Leading members of the MMA (2002).
Leading members of the MMA (2002).

• 2008 Election Boycott

Areas of Electoral Influence: Parts of Karachi (Sindh); Parts of KP.

______________________

Juice

Ideological Orientation Fundamentalist (1947 - ).

Views on religion Fundamentalist, even though the party has often expressed it through intellectual means and propaganda.

Youth Wings: Islami Jamiat Taleba (formed: 1948); Shabab-e-Milli (formed: 1994); Pasban (but broke away from JI in 1994).

Flag of the Shabab-e-Milli
Flag of the Shabab-e-Milli

Party websites: Jamat-i-Islami Islami Jamiat Taleba 2013 Election Manifesto

______________________

(1) Phillap Edward Jones, The Pakistan Peoples Party: Rise To Power (Oxford University Press, 2003) p.89 (2) Barbra Daly Metcalf, Islamic Contestations (Oxford University Press, 2004) p.229 (3) Dr. Mubasher Hassan, The Mirage of Power, (Oxford University Press, 2000) pp.7,8. (4) Santosh C. Saha, Thomas K. Religious Fundamentalism in Developing Countries (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001) p.20 (5) Raja Anwar, The Terrorist Prince: The Life & Death of Murtaza Bhutto (Verso, 1997) p.xii (6) Farooq Laghari was a member of the PPP from the late 1970s and was made the President by Benazir’s second regime in 1993. He had a falling out with her in 1996 and dismissed her government using his Constititional powers, accusing it of corruption. He was eased out by the second Nawaz Sharif government in 1997. He died in 2010). (7) Benazir Bhutto, Reconciliation (Harper Collins, 2009) pp.17-80. (8) Tahir Mehdi, NA Elections in Pakistan (Pakistan/Afghanistan Free & Fair Election Network, 2012) (9) Ravi Kal, Pakistan: From Rhetoric of Democracy to Rise of Militancy (Routledge, 2012) p.54 (10) Benazir Bhutto, Reconciliation (Harper Collins, 2009) pp.17-80 (11) Hugh Tinker, South Asia: A Short History (University of Hawaii, 1990) p.269 (12) Ayesha Jalal, Self & Sovereignty, (Oxford University Press, 2002) p.457 (13) Link Vol: 17 (1975) p.80 (14) Pildat-Gallup Poll (March 213) (15) Tahir Mehdi, NA Elections in Pakistan (Pakistan/Afghanistan Free & Fair Election Network, 2012) (16) PML was part of the Islami Jamhoori Ittihad during 1988 election. (17) PML was part of the IJI. In a 2012 verdict by the Supreme Court verdict, the IJI was funded by the country’s intelligence agencies and this impacted on the result of the 1990 election. (18) Imran Khan, Pakistan: A Personal History (Random House, 2012) pp.110-114 (19) Jyotindra Nath Dixit, India’s Foreign Policy & Its Neighbours (Gyan, 2001) p.175 (20) 2010 satirical song Aalu Anday by Bayghairat Brigade parodied the PTI as a ‘good looking Jamat-e-Islami. (21) Aqil Shah, Apologia Taliban 101 (Dawn.Com, Oct. 2012) (22) ibd (23) Tahir Mehdi, NA Elections in Pakistan (Pakistan/Afghanistan Free & Fair Election Network, 2012) (24) Far Eastern Economic Review (1975) p.3 (25) Tahir Mehdi, NA Elections in Pakistan (Pakistan/Afghanistan Free & Fair Election Network, 2012) (26) Ayesha Jalal, Self & Sovereignty (Oxford University Press, 2002). (27) Phillap Edward Jones, The Pakistan Peoples Party: Rise To Power (Oxford University Press, 2003) p.134 (28) Irfan Ahmad, The Transformation of Jamat-e-Islami (Princeton University Press, 2009) p.6 (29) Vali Reza Nasir, Vanguard of the Islamic Revolution (I. B. Tauris, 1994)

 


80x80-NFPnew
Nadeem F. Paracha is a cultural critic and senior columnist for Dawn Newspaper and Dawn.com

 

 


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Nadeem F. Paracha is a cultural critic and senior columnist for Dawn Newspaper and Dawn.com


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Comments (49) (Closed)


Ram
May 03, 2013 04:00pm
Looking at comments section Every one is missing the point. NFP is simply stating history and he is expecting Pakistan to learn from history and not to repeat again, one such example is a former playboy cricket hero now turned into religion because it is necessary to be Islamic to win elections Given the choices Imran Khan is a better, it will be fun to watch if Nawaz Sharif comes to power and Musharaf is still in Jail Politics is fun guys enjoy the circus we do that in India more than bollywood
veryoldlahori
May 02, 2013 08:40pm
That is not the point. PPP was and still is a party of scoundrels headed by selfish power hungry men/women. I saw it emergence, full of hypocrisy and emotional manipulation and the only way to turn a loss to a victory was to force over half the population out with terrible and viscous and unforgivable violence. "If the parliament is called into session there will be blood on the streets of Lahore and Karachi" ZAB 1971.
zaib
May 03, 2013 08:55am
Good work but lots of information missing what bhutto did in 70s with lef.
veryoldlahori
May 02, 2013 09:03pm
He is, countries are transformed by such men. Personal lives have nothing to do public duty and leadership.
yasrab rao
May 02, 2013 08:46pm
Great work...hats off for NFP
Khan
May 02, 2013 02:37pm
He is no angel. People paint him as some sort of saint.
Khan
May 02, 2013 02:36pm
PPP is the a visionary party. People must say things for what they are. How can two parts of he same country function separated by India? Nonsense.
zaid haris
May 02, 2013 05:08pm
Hi NFP, You forgot to mention Jamat-e-Islami supporting Fatma Jinnah against Ayub Khan. It was bizzare Political activity in which Religious Political Party supporting woman.
Sayeed Altaf Hussein
May 03, 2013 09:36am
Bro, It has nothing to do with the ethnicity but has to do with power. Bhuttos’ and Zaradaris’ are power hungry. I am a Punjabi but I am a Muslim before all else and will speak the truth and stand-up for it. Bengali Bros have my full sympathy and support to bring those responsible to account including Bhuttos’. Zia should had charged him with treason and atrocities committed in Bengal and not murder. That would have been fair.
Gulbaz Mushtaq
May 02, 2013 02:36pm
Great piece. I was just watching pictures and casually reading the article and didn't notice who is the author. When I saw Imran Khan's pic without shirt, it suddenly came to my mind.. OHH its from NFP. It was then I read the whole article. As always good work.
suhail Shah
May 02, 2013 05:05pm
Excellent !!!
rehan
May 02, 2013 12:26pm
well said ...!!!!
Yeah
May 03, 2013 06:53pm
Had Bhutto served the country a little longer, we would have east pakistan, west pakistan, north pakistan and south pakistan.
Karachi Wala
May 02, 2013 03:29pm
An overall good overall bird's eye view of the political (religious) mindset of the parties involved in Pakistan politics. I think it would have been appropriate to include religiopolitical mindset of Bengalis, on and around the formation of Pakistan. The inception and progression of Shiekh Mujeeb's Awami league.
Hazheer
May 02, 2013 03:37pm
Are you the guy who opens editorials to only see the pictures? Because I am sure most of the people READ about PTI and nobody cares about IK's shirtless pic !
Fouad
May 02, 2013 01:24pm
see the definition of survey in dictionary... it doesn't just mean going around asking people questions... it means a comprehensive analysis of anything... in this case, a survey of the history of political parties in Pakistan
Magister Ludi
May 02, 2013 01:26pm
Just a minor correction 'Jahaliya' in Arabic means emotional not ignorance as was referenced in the JI section.
Shahpur
May 02, 2013 01:40pm
Pakistan still in the making.
Babar
May 02, 2013 11:31am
I wish that everyone could read this wonderful explanation of the parties. Of course, I truly wish that everyone would read Dawn editorials.
Majid Akram
May 02, 2013 02:02pm
Agreed, but the context that Islamic activists like Maidudi and Sayyad Qutb used it in meant ignorance.
Shahpur
May 02, 2013 11:43pm
Pakistani is a theory, and realities are different. Pakistan is Tribal and Clans based society. Look around these people were in power before, and after, Pakistan came in existence, and they are still in power and probably will stay in power for a long time. There should be a new constitution. 1973 constitution is a joke. It does not guarantee any basic rights.
Teejay
May 02, 2013 01:14pm
Err, this is not a survey, but an historical analysis.
Teejay
May 02, 2013 01:15pm
Fantastic piece of writing and info once again, NFP.
Naila
May 03, 2013 02:45pm
Roots, fruit and juice: very nice .. however, including the 'loot-khasoot' as part #4 would have made it even nicer.
Fouad
May 02, 2013 12:46pm
good survey... just one suggestion, add the following column - "special interest represented"; PPP: Sindhi and South Punjabi Feudal PML-N: Punjabi industrialist and businessman MQM: Urdu speaking middle class PTI: Middle class, establishment and army Jamaat-e-Islami: Middle class, religious nationalists ANP: Pashtun feudal
Anas Tanveer
May 03, 2013 12:09pm
Comprehensive, and brief historical background of the mainstream parties. I must appreciate that everything came up with a reference, leaving people speechless. I would rather call it a detailed research paper. :)
gotti
May 02, 2013 11:01am
Well done, Mr. Paracha. This piece showcases one of the best researched papers (so to speak) on Pakistani politics and its roots starting from the undivided subcontinent, which is very pertinent to mention given that the history of most parties starts from before Pakistan's foundation (except PPP and MQM). In short, we believe, as Pakistanis, you deserve better than Dawn and should be given a regular section on international papers and news media organizations.
Zahrah
May 04, 2013 12:36pm
Well said!
imran
May 03, 2013 10:35am
I think separation of Bangladesh was the worst thing happened to Pakistan and is and will remain. The reason we say this, we are struggling a lot because of our neighbor, we always are on brink of war with India (India with us), if Bangladesh had remained part of Pakistan, Pakistan would have a huge geological advantage over india and chances of any future would have been minimal (atleast from pakistan's point of view) since india would have to deploy forces on both sides in case anything happened. But as usual Pakistan Politician preferred their personal interests over national interest and yet people call Bhutto the great leader, he had the charisma to attract masses but only people of back then, but now people can see whats wrong or right (may be I am wrong because there are still millions who follow these politicians like they God send). May ALLAH protect Pakistan from any leader like this in future. Ameen.
Sayeed Altaf Hussein
May 02, 2013 12:59pm
Dear Mr Paracha what you have failed to highlight is the fact that in 1970 the Awami League headed by the Majubul Rehman won the election and PPP refused to let Majibul Rehman to form government and hence the reason of East Pakistan becoming Bagladesh. Think the young generation needs to be made aware of PPPs deeds. So the young voters can make informed decisions.
Shak
May 02, 2013 02:02pm
Good thing is he is not a maulvi type and avoids getting too carried away with jingoism and hate against anyone.
Nony
May 02, 2013 02:07pm
Very informative and timely piece of writing.
Rafi
May 02, 2013 11:52am
A shirtless Imran does reflect his achievements on the cricket field.NFP couldn't resist a chance to take a potshot at IK.
gotti
May 03, 2013 09:05am
Agreed. East Pakistanis made the combined nation of Pakistan just as much as Qaadu and those in the West made Pakistan (if not more). Even worse is to see the disregard, the West Pakistanis have for the Bengali sacrifices for the country - they lost as many lives (if not more) as those in the West and suffered equal (or worse) displacements too - but, I guess their lives aren't as valuable as say, the life of a Urdu/Punjabi speaker, now, are they?
Rihat
May 03, 2013 08:30am
If the military rules in our past history of 65 years have been the bane of our lack of progress in democracy then looking at the above synopsis of each of the major parties mentioned, it is sad to note that all of them have a leaning in religiosity and right wing elements in one form or another and of varying strength. The signals are not at all healthy for Pakistan. On one hand, it is perhaps a good thing for Pakistan to identify itself as an Islamic Republic, but it is disheartening for democracy to succeed with such level of religious radicalism in the society. Pakistan needs to transform rapidly and be modern and middle of the road in its outlook.
Tahira
May 02, 2013 12:19pm
First of all, Dawn is perhaps the only internationally recognized and respected newspaper from Pakistan. Not a lot of people can drop in and write for this newspaper. I think NFP is still its youngest columnist. Secondly, NFP has also regularly contributed for well known Indian newspapers, as well as for The Independent in the UK. His paper on Student Politics is widely referenced both within Pakistan and in various European and US universities.
haris
May 03, 2013 10:16am
Mr gotti: you probably fight against your Sardars for freedom.
Denial
May 02, 2013 06:18pm
He tried to not include the partys' personal histories if you've noticed
Javed
May 02, 2013 06:18pm
We hang petty thieves and appoint the bigger thieves to public office. ~Aesop, Greek slave & fable author
TKhan
May 02, 2013 07:35pm
Gulbaz the Dhoke-Baaz. Why people assume that if they lie in English, it cannot be detected????
AMoeed
May 03, 2013 11:39pm
By reading this article, it appears that the only political party worth voting for - due to its sacrifices - is Pakistan Peoples Parties. Thanks God for youtube which still houses a large collection of ZA Bhutto's anti West Pakistan speeches. References and researches do not mean anything if instead of giving a neutral point of view, we pick and choose what supports our argument and the picture that we want to paint. Come on NFP, you are better than that.
Schazad
May 02, 2013 05:28pm
This should give young Pakis an idea of what kind of Pakistan they want before they go out voting on May 11.
Qamar
May 02, 2013 05:49pm
The people of Pakistan gave everything that PPP asked them for; what did PPP gave back to the people of Pakistan????
Mustafa
May 04, 2013 04:35am
Compared to a vast majority of politicians in Pakistan, South Asia or the West, Imran Khan is indeed an angle.
Ghalib Khan
May 04, 2013 10:45am
There is the print option given at the top of the article from their you can either print or convert it into a PDF also you can email the article to yourself.
Moazzam Salim
May 04, 2013 05:25am
The writer's affiliations and sympathies with PPP have compelled him to leave out Bhutto's long affiliation with Gen. Ayub who was the first Martial Law Administrator. Another inconvenient fact left out is that Z.A. Bhutto till this date remains the only civilian Martial Law Administrator!
Loop
May 02, 2013 06:50pm
That picture in the column represents what Imran was at that time, read the article objectively
Dr Hemant Junnarkar
May 04, 2013 09:44am
A very informative article. A concise political history of Pakistan which I was not aware of. How can I store it permanently in my collection?
Keti Zilgish
May 03, 2013 09:56am
How did the slogun of 'Nizam-e-Mustapha', first propounded by forces who were desperate to get even with Ayub Khan for having overthrown their government, get metamorphosed into that of 'Sharia'?