Indians are voting in the seventh and final phase of national elections, wrapping up a 6-week-long long, gruelling campaign season with Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Hindu nationalist party seeking reelection for another five years.
The last round of election includes 59 constituencies in eight states.
Up for grabs are 13 seats in Punjab and an equal number in Uttar Pradesh, eight each in Bihar and Madhya Pradesh, nine in West Bengal, four in Himachal Pradesh and three in Jharkhand and Chandigarh.
The voting also covers Modi's constituency of Varanasi, a holy Hindu city where he was elected in 2014. The election is seen as a referendum on Modi's five-year rule. He has adopted a nationalist pitch in trying to win votes from the country's Hindu majority by projecting a tough stance against Pakistan.
The Congress and other opposition parties are challenging him over a high unemployment rate of 6.1 per cent and farmers' distress aggravated by low crop prices.
Counting of votes is scheduled for May 23.