A brief pictorial overview of his nine years in power and the years after he retired as the country's chief executive.
Retired general Pervez Musharraf, the country's former president, was sentenced to death for high treason by a special court on Tuesday.
After having called a state of emergency twice, once in 1999 and then again in 2007, the former military chief left the country in 2016 to seek medical treatment abroad. He promised to return to Pakistan in a few months but has been in self-imposed exile since.
Dawn.com provides a brief pictorial overview from his time as army chief, followed by his nine-year-long rule and the years after he retired as the country's chief executive.
In this file photo from October 8, 1998, then prime minister Nawaz Sharif talks with the newly appointed Chief of Army Staff, General Pervez Musharraf. — AFP
Nawaz Sharif and Pervez Musharraf at Keil sector near Rawalakot on the Line of Control in February, 1999. — AFP
Television frame-grab of then army chief General Pervez Musharraf's address to the nation October 13, 1999. Musharraf, in a nationwide televised address following the announcement that Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif had been removed from office, said the army had been forced to intervene because of "uncertainty and turmoil" gripping the country. — AFP
General Pervez Musharraf addresses the nation on state television on October 17, 1999, announcing the setting up of the National Security Council (NSC), to guide cabinet ministers in running the affairs of the country. He said that army rule would last no longer than necessary but gave no clear timeframe. — Reuters
Military ruler General Pervez Musharraf gives his four-point agenda during his first press conference after a bloodless military coup in Islamabad, November 1, 1999. Musharraf said he plans to hold a referendum to seek legitimacy after the army coup the previous month. — AFP
President Mohammad Rafiq Tarar and military ruler General Pervez Musharraf attend the Independence Day ceremony on August 14, 2000. Tarar was later removed from office, clearing the way for the swearing in of Musharraf on June 20, 2001. — Reuters
Musharraf gestures during an address to refugees in Muzaffarabad, February 5, 2001. — AFP
Chief Executive General Pervez Musharraf signs the national budget for the year 2001-02 in Islamabad, June 18, 2001. Finance Minister Shaukat Aziz (L) informed the cabinet that the major thrust of the new budget is on reviving investor-confidence and fostering growth in agricultural and industrial sectors to make the economy stand on its own feet. Others are unidentified finance ministry officials. — AFP
Musharraf reviews the guard of honour as he is sworn in as president in Islamabad, June 20, 2001. — AP
President General Pervez Musharraf (L) shakes hand with top military official, General Mehmood (2nd R), the chief of Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), after a flag hoisting ceremony to mark the country's 54th Independence Day in Islamabad, August 14, 2001. — AFP
Musharraf hugs Afghan interim leader Hamid Karzai at Chaklala airbase in Rawalpindi, February 8, 2002. Karzai arrived for his first visit to Pakistan since he took office in December 2001. — AFP
Musharraf shakes hands with US president George Bush at the White House after Pakistan pledged support for America's "war on terror" in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks. — Reuters
In this file photo from October 11, 2002, Musharraf casts his vote at the Park Road polling station in Islamabad. — Dawn
In this file photo from December 5, 2003, Musharraf addresses a convention of religious scholars in Islamabad. During his address, he said the government was committed to root out extremism and that banned militant organisations would not be allowed to resurface under any new name. — Dawn
In this photo taken on June 12, 2004, Musharraf answers a question during an interview in Rawalpindi. — AFP
In this photo taken on June 12, 2004, Musharraf laughs while responding to a question during an interview in Rawalpindi. — AFP
In this file photo from March 10, 2007, Musharraf meets with Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry at the President's Camp office in the annexe of the Army House in Rawalpindi. Musharraf virtually suspended then chief justice and appointed the available senior-most judge at the time, Justice Javed Iqbal. — Reuters
On November 3, 2007, Musharraf declares a state of emergency and suspends the 1973 Constitution. — Screengrab courtesy Al-Jazeera video
In this photograph taken on November 28, 2007, then President Pervez Musharraf (L) salutes as he arrives with then newly appointed army chief General Ashfaq Kiyani during the change of command ceremony in Rawalpindi.
President Pervez Musharraf, front left, administers oath to newly-elected Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani, front right, at Presidential Palace in Islamabad, March 25, 2008. — AP
This hand out picture released by Press Information Department shows President Pervez Musharraf announcing his resignation in an address to the nation in Islamabad on August 18, 2008. Musharraf announced his resignation in the face of looming impeachment charges, ending a turbulent nine years in power. — PID
Musharraf salutes as he leaves the presidential house in Islamabad, August 18, 2008. — AP
In this file photo from August 19, 2008, Musharraf inspects a Guard of Honour during a farewell ceremony at the presidency. Musharraf tendered his resignation from office to escape the humiliation of impeachment, making way for Pakistan's transition to a full parliamentary democracy after a lengthy military dictatorship. — Dawn Archives
Former president Musharraf speaks during an event at the Westin Hotel in Bellevue, Washington on March 14, 2010. The former president spoke for almost an hour and took questions from the audience. — AP
Musharraf gestures during an interview with Reuters in London on January 16, 2011. — Reuters
Pakistan's former president Pervez Musharraf arrives at an antiterrorism court in Islamabad in April, 2013. — AP
Former president and head of the All Pakistan Muslim League (APML) Pervez Musharraf salutes as he arrives to unveil his party manifesto for the 2013 general election at his residence in Islamabad, April 15, 2013. — Reuters
Musharraf addresses his party supporters at his house in Islamabad, on April 15, 2013. — AP
Musharraf leaves after appearing in court in Rawalpindi, April 17, 2013. Musharraf appeared in court to seek bail in Benazir Bhutto's assassination case. The Supreme Court ordered Musharraf to respond to allegations that he committed treason while in power, and barred him from leaving the country only weeks after he returned. — AP
In this photo taken on November 14, 2014 Musharraf gestures during an interview with AFP in Karachi. — AFP
Musharraf during an interview with Khaleej Times at his residence in Dubai in 2018. — Photo by Juidin Bernarrd via Khaleej Times
Musharraf at a hospital in Dubai in March this year. — Photo courtesy APML