'Spiritual torture': India's crackdown hits religious freedom in occupied Kashmir
For years Romi Jan's mornings would begin with the plaintive call to prayer that rang out from the central mosque in Indian-occupied Kashmir's largest city. The voice soothed her soul and made her feel closer to God.
Not anymore. For nearly four months now, the voice that would call out five times a day from the minarets of the Jamia Masjid and echo across Srinagar has been silent, a result of India's ongoing security operations in this Muslim-majority region.
"The mosque closure is a relentless agony for me and my family," Jan said. "I can't tolerate it, but I am helpless."
Already one of the most militarised places in the world, last summer India began pouring more troops into occupied Kashmir. It implemented a security lockdown in which it pressed harsh curbs on civil rights, arrested thousands of people, blocked internet and phone service, and shuttered important mosques.
All of this was laying the groundwork for the Hindu nationalist-led governments August 5 decision to strip occupied Kashmir of its semi-autonomous status — moves it knew would be met with fury by Kashmiri Muslims, most of whom want independence or unification with Pakistan. The government claimed the restrictions were needed to head off anti-India protests and violence.
While some of the conditions, according to Indian authorities, have since been eased, some mosques and Muslim shrines in the region either remain shuttered or have had their access limited. Muslims say this is undermining their constitutional right to religious freedom and only deepening anti-India sentiment.
The centuries-old Jamia Masjid, made of brick and wood, is one of the oldest in this city of 1.2 million, where 96 per cent of people are Muslim. When it's open, thousands of people congregate there for prayers.
Romi would take her two children there every day and sit inside the compound while they would play.
"I would forget all my miseries there," she said.
Now, when her kids ask why they can't go to the mosque, she draws a blank face.
"I open my window of the house which faces the mosque and show my kids the soldiers that are stationed outside it," Romi said.
That it is a target for authorities is neither surprising nor new. Friday sermons at the mosque mainly revolve around the Kashmir conflict, and its surrounding neighbourhoods are often where stone-throwing protesters clash with government forces in the ongoing anti-India struggle.
Authorities have banned prayers at the mosque for extended periods during unrest in 2008, 2010 and 2016. Official data show the mosque was closed at least 250 days in those three years combined.
Mohammed Yasin Bangi, the 70-year-old whose voice has called out the prayers at the mosque for the last 55 years, said the current restrictions are the worst he has seen.
"During earlier restrictions, we would be sometimes allowed to offer evening prayers. But not even once during this time around," he said. "The closure of the mosque has robbed me of my peace. I've been subjected to spiritual torture."
A top police officer in the city, speaking on condition of anonymity in keeping with department policy, said authorities decided the mosque could reopen last month for Friday prayers but mosque officials refused.
A mosque official, speaking on condition of anonymity because he feared reprisals, said they refused because authorities sought assurances that there would be no protests or speeches against the Indian government.
Rohit Kansal, a government spokesman, declined to comment. Officials from the Home Ministry in New Delhi, which oversees internal security in the country, did not respond to requests for comment.
Freedom of religion is enshrined in India's constitution, allowing citizens to follow and freely practice religion. The constitution also says the state will not discriminate, patronise or meddle in the profession of any religion.
But even before the current security operation in occupied Kashmir, experts say conditions for India's Muslims have been growing worse under Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which came to power in 2014 and won a landslide re-election in May.
In June, the United States State Department said in a report that religious freedom in India continued a downward trend in the year 2018. India's foreign ministry rejected the report.
In August, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation raised concerns about India's lockdown in occupied Kashmir and called for authorities to ensure that Kashmiri Muslims could exercise their religious rights.
The ongoing restrictions in the occupied territory have also included gatherings at Muslim shrines and religious festivals.
In August, worshipers were told to host the prayers for the festival of Eidul Azha inside small neighbourhood mosques rather than in the large outdoor gatherings that are normal. In September, authorities banned the annual Muharram processions that mark the martyrdom of the Prophet Muhammad's (PBUH) grandson.
Last month, during the yearly celebration of the birth anniversary of the Prophet, authorities blocked all roads leading to Dargah Hazratbal, the region's most revered Muslim shrine. Only a few hundred devotees were allowed to pray there far fewer than the tens of thousands the event has been known to draw.
Authorities on Monday allowed thousands of people to gather at a Sufi shine in downtown Srinagar for an annual celebration.
Restrictions on such gatherings are particularly galling to Kashmiri Muslims because they have long complained that the government curbs their religious freedom on the pretext of law and order while promoting and patronising an annual Hindu pilgrimage to the Amarnath Shrine in occupied Kashmir that draws hundreds of thousands of visitors.
Sheikh Showkat, a professor of international law and human rights at the Central University of Kashmir, warned that such a duality in policy sent a clear message that the government no longer remains impartial toward different religions and further alienates the people of the occupied valley.
It no way augers well for any peace, he said.
"Whether it triggers further radicalisation or not, it definitely infuriates people about the safety and security of their faith. It can also snowball into a mass mobilisation against the state."
Syed Mohammed Tayib Kamili has been leading annual prayers at Kashmir's Khanqah Naqashband shrine since 1976. Indian authorities stopped last months gathering from taking place.
The decision, which was met with anti-India protests, was the first time the prayers had not been held in the shrines 399-year history, Kamili said.
"They have not only violated the constitution, he said, but also invited the wrath of the divine power."