KARACHI: Nineteen point two per cent of Pakistan’s total population was literate, according to the 1961 census. The literary percentage for East and West Pakistan was 21.5 and 16.3 respectively.

According to the census, there were 1,43,35,809 literate persons in Pakistan (excluding the Frontier regions), of whom 1,11,06,746 were males and 32,29,063 were females. By provinces, East Pakistan had 89,55,501 literates, while in West Pakistan the number was 53,80,308.

These figures were obtained in census bulletin No 4 which was released in Karachi yesterday morning at a Press conference by the Census Commissioner, Mr A. Rashid.

The Census Commissioner told reporters that these literacy figures had been counted for the population aged five years and over.

He said that the percentage of literacy which had declined since the 1951 census had a reason behind it.

The definition of literacy in 1951 was “the ability to read a clear print in any language”. In the 1961 census literacy had been defined as “the ability to read a simple letter in any language with understanding” which was more in keeping with the international standard and true meaning of literacy, he said.

He said approximately one-fourth of the total literates of Pakistan lived in urban areas which had a literacy percentage of 35.8, while the percentage of literacy in rural population was 16.6.

As enumerated in the 1961 census, there were 82,069 university graduates in general and technical subjects in Pakistan. Of this 28,069 were in East Pakistan and 54,000 in West Pakistan. Higher degree holders were 231,470 in West Pakistan and 7,147 in East Pakistan.

There were nearly twice as many matriculates, intermediates and graduates in West Pakistan as in East Pakistan. At post-graduate level, the ratio was nearly four in West Pakistan to one in East Pakistan.—Agencies