23 July, 2014 / Ramazan 24, 1435

Flagship Indian retailer opens in Pakistan

Published Jun 21, 2013 08:24pm
Najmus Saqib, store director for The Raymond Shop in Pakistan, is pictured inside the store premises in Karachi on June 21, 2013. - Photo by AFP
Najmus Saqib, store director for The Raymond Shop in Pakistan, is pictured inside the store premises in Karachi on June 21, 2013. - Photo by AFP

KARACHI: Raymond, an Indian suiting and fabrics conglomerate, will on Friday formally open its first shop in Pakistan, where business leaders welcomed it as a step towards closer trade ties between the two countries.

NexSource Pakistan, which acquired the rights to sell Raymond suiting in Clifton, one of the most upscale neighbourhoods in business capital Karachi, said it was a major acquisition.

“They wanted to bring Raymond to Pakistan and we offered to be their partner,” said one of its directors, Najmus Saqib.

Nexsource say they expect to reap good business after an aggressive advertising campaign in a city whose wealthier residents are sartorially obsessed and where fashion is a key driver of business.

“People are crazy about clothing and dressing, and they already know Raymond,” Saqib said. “We just have to let them know that it is here.”

NexSource executive Saqib said he believed the enormous Indian market represented massive business opportunities for Pakistan.

“We expect a good response (through Raymond) but we believe it is a futuristic investment as we can explore a market 10 times bigger than ours,” said Saqib.

Pakistani business leaders welcome the arrival of the Indian brand, which was founded in 1925 and whose Karachi shop is to be inaugurated formally later on Friday.

“As long as there is healthy competition we welcome this move,” said Amin Hashwani, president of the Pakistan India Business Forum.

Nexsource say they plan to open more Raymond outlets in Islamabad, Lahore and Faisalabad before the end of the year.

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Comments (97) (Closed)


Rihat
Jun 21, 2013 09:00pm

Yes they have outlets in Dubai and Abu Dhabi too.

Can't say too much about products and value for money but the showroom presentation of products on dummies looked bland and second hand. Staff not one of the most customer friendly.

A livid ex-customer.

Vikram
Jun 21, 2013 09:59pm

In India the employees and the owner has a dress code with all due respect to the traditional clothes of all regions I expect the sales people to be well dressed where I go to buy my clothes or else it creates a negative impact on the customer. Branded retail is all about formats , ambience and presentation that sets them apart from the street corner shop.

Hope this will be taken positively for the success of the venture.

TKhan
Jun 21, 2013 10:05pm

There once was pirate captain who, whenever it looked like a battle would be imminent would change into a red shirt. After observing this behavior for a few months, one of the crew members asked him what it meant.

"It's in case I get shot. I don't want you crew members to see blood and freak out."

"That's very sensible, sir." At that moment, the crew member spotted eight hostile ships on the horizon. The captain all of a sudden looked very concerned.

"Get my brown pants."

Amir
Jun 21, 2013 11:11pm

This is a good and a very encouraging move. Hopefully, it will promote healthy competition which normally resuts in improved products. Both Pakistan and India need to move beyond the traditional "you are my enemy" mentality. Times have changed and so whould their thinking. Good luck to this new business venture in Pakistan. I sincerely hope that it will open more doors for the future.

Madan
Jun 21, 2013 11:28pm

A good first step in the direction of improving relations between two neigbouring countries.

a
Jun 21, 2013 11:50pm

So we are sidelining Pakistani designers for the sake of our neighbours, who routinely accuse us of all the wrong doings. I personally would ALWAYS buy Pakistani products.

Agha Ata
Jun 21, 2013 11:55pm

An Indian businessman doing business in Pakistan is a beautiful step, and I would hate to see it closed for weeks or months when the next unpleasant incident happens, between the two countries, which usually does as is desired, and takes us back to square one.

Vikrant
Jun 22, 2013 12:06am

I hate to say this (and earnestly hope to be proved WRONG) -- but I believe that this store and (alas!) its employees and customers will be "sitting ducks" for the BAD GUYS in Pakistan... very soon a-la Quetta, Ziarat, Mardan, Peshawar etc etc ...

khan
Jun 22, 2013 12:16am

If you guys want to know more about Men's fashion you need to find out Field Marshal Ayub Khan's pictures of all trips he made outside Pakistan. Until this day, I have not seen anyone dressed so elegantly as him. I consider him a well-dress man of all times. I can even see ties in today's modern fashion that he wore more than 50 years ago.So, we don't have to go far to bring new fashion ideas and good stuff. It just need a little imagination.

Ahmad
Jun 22, 2013 12:18am

We didnt get freedom from hindustan and sacrificed millions of Pakistanis in the 1947 partition to start opening their businesses in Pakistan.

Muneer bhai
Jun 22, 2013 12:26am

@khan: He didn't know much about soldiering or governing the country so now we know at least one thing he was good at.

Muneer bhai
Jun 22, 2013 12:27am

@Vikrant: Only if they don't pay bhatta......

Ramesh Manghirmalani
Jun 22, 2013 12:55am

You are right, as young reporter I met him thrice

Ramesh Manghirmalani
Jun 22, 2013 12:53am

dont be negative

TKhan
Jun 22, 2013 12:56am

@khan:

What did Mr. Khan said in his comments that to be disliked or give thumbs down? It is a fact that President (Dictator) Ayub Khan was a very polished and handsome man. He dressed very nicely and also spoke eloquently. Pakistanis enjoyed the highest admiration in the world. Apart from him being a dictator, no one ever questioned his patriotism. He himself was never accused of any financial wrong doings, however, he couldn't control his sons. Even his sons did not plunder the money from the treasury of the country, they simply used their connections to benefit and invest in manufacturing business. Yes, it was wrong to do that, however, they at least created jobs; unlike many corrupt politicians who borrowed the money but built factories and plants on papers only. Ayub Khan left his office after a token resistance when realized that he was no longer desired by his countrymen.

TKhan
Jun 22, 2013 12:59am

@Vikrant:

And after that they will ask the owners to reopen and name it 'Rehman Shop'; and sell what Mr. Najmus Saqib is modeling! :)

Saeed
Jun 22, 2013 01:33am

When can pakistanis do business in India

ssf
Jun 22, 2013 01:54am

I see a man in shulwar kameez in this picture or Is that a mannequin for the dresses to be sold as Pakistani outfits? It says he is the Manager, I am not sure or a chuprasee. If he is the manager I don't see much of a hope for the store, image problem..

aaa
Jun 22, 2013 02:36am

I think people would like indian shops in Pakistan. The only problem is its name cant they call is somethingelse. Didnt have good experience with last Raymond. Name could create a problem.

Nizamuddin Ahmad
Jun 22, 2013 03:06am

Khan saheb: You must be joking. Baggy pants and oversize coats were never in fashion, plus this is a news for me. I have lived a very long time in Europe and Americas ( north and south including Canada. ) and I have been around well dressed men and women. I can tell you must have smoking something before writing this comment.

Nizamuddin Ahmad
Jun 22, 2013 03:10am

Watch out Pakistanis. Suits today, bicycles tomorrow and Indian made motor cars will be the next. We will become slaves and " market " of India like Bangladesh. Wake up!

ismael
Jun 22, 2013 03:30am

Give me a break, Mr. manager show us you care to wear, what you want others to buy.

waleedfakhar
Jun 22, 2013 05:05am

ITS A REALLY POSSITIVE AND PROLIFIC DECISION OF CURRENT GOVT. BUT WE NEED TO SEE THE REACTION OF RELIGIOUS GROUPS..

umesh bhagwat
Jun 22, 2013 06:52am

excellent! gd lk!

Shaan
Jun 22, 2013 06:55am

So how many days we have to wait to see that taliban blowing it up in somkes???

ak47
Jun 22, 2013 06:57am

Is that guy in sherwani, skull cap and beard(in picture) is going to buy those fancy expensive clothings or he is just checking it out how to blow up the store???

Khurram
Jun 22, 2013 07:23am

A good step, so when a Pakistani store is going to get opened in Bombay without any worries from RSS hatemongers?

Muhammad Farooq
Jun 22, 2013 07:34am

wow...Pakistani businessmen should also explore opportunities in India e.g., Hafiz ka Halwa would be a hit in every province, city and village of India.

EQ8Rhomes
Jun 22, 2013 07:38am

Respectfully, may I submit that there seems to be a strange sartorial disconnect between the store director Mr. Najmus Saqib and the mannequin in the background. Please tell us how that works. No offence intended. Thank you.

Aram Khan
Jun 22, 2013 08:44am

Good. Now pakistanis can come out of thier muslimist mindset and enjoy some eligant dressing if not lifestyle. But i think first the owner of the shop has to improve his dressing sense. The picture shows him in that filthy dress. I dont know how he will motivate customer to wear suits.

Adeel
Jun 22, 2013 08:42am

I wish India also opens outlets of lawrencepur in mumbai and delhi in the same spirit.

ROHIT PANDEY
Jun 22, 2013 09:16am

Wish all luck....but,don't forget to keep your fingers crossed...!!!!

aman
Jun 22, 2013 09:30am

This is very good move, In this year three exhibitions held in Chandigarh from Pak regarding clothes, Last was in sector 28, Himachal Bhawan , I don't think Traders of Pakistan might have taken back to Pak any cloth. Craze was women suite people were so exited specialy women that they wont get after this.

fadoo
Jun 22, 2013 10:06am

So I cannot visit my college buddies in India cuz I am a Pakistani of Indian decent, even though I'm now a US Citizen, but we want to let Indians do business in Karachi. I say put a stop to it until the bigot Indian govt changes its policies. So much for touting themselves as the biggest democracy, true democracy means all people are equal as in US, O I would so much like to visit Hyderabad as my great grandpa was killed fighting the British along with Tipu Sultan......but India want to blame all Pakistanis for the crimes of few...Shame on you!!

Devil
Jun 22, 2013 10:23am

Pakistani Men and fashion ! Paradox

Sherry
Jun 22, 2013 10:31am

@Vikrant: Though you couldnt be further from the truth, the honesty in your prediction kind of scares me...

Naresh Kumar
Jun 22, 2013 10:37am

@Amir: We want peace between india and pakistan .we both now want to deserve live peacefully as USA and Canada living .This is only USA who is root cause of all evils

Muhammad Ashraf
Jun 22, 2013 10:53am

A good step indeed. These things should be bi-directional. Some Pakistani big name like Gul Ahmed or Alkaram should open thier outlets in Mombai or New Dehli. This is more natural way to bring both people close to each other.

Nazir Khan
Jun 22, 2013 10:54am

Raymond...i have seen it in adds in Indian televisions....once one of my brother who visited India brought it for me....really its cheap and beautiful....i will buy it for my dad after my first salary this month. Indian business tie up are very healthy for us....even more important than Chinese business tie ups...!!

M. Venugopal
Jun 22, 2013 11:25am

I sincerely hope the Brand will have a good patronage because of its traditional good quality and which can be compared with any of the best international brands.

Hope some body will open a good South Indian restaurant

NK Ali
Jun 22, 2013 11:55am

We see a lot of Raymond suitings on TV adverts. But seeing it in real time Karachi puts a feather in the Najmus Saqib's hat. Well done. PS: Najm...how come you are not wearing a Raymond suit? Salams

Ravi Ingale from University of Pune
Jun 22, 2013 02:15pm

It is not new that Indian cloth's market is in Pakistan. On these days they got legal marketing in Pakistan. Otherwise Pakistani Market is almost full of Indian cloth's Indirectly because they all from Imported from Dubai. And India send their fabric goods to Dubai instead of imported from India through Wagha Border, Indian Punjab.

Gerry D'Cunha
Jun 22, 2013 02:45pm

OMG - Raymond, what a silly mistake you have done - look at the country's own fashion industry - you might be the easy target of your enemy in pakistan

Hadia Khan
Jun 22, 2013 02:56pm

Am I the only one who finds the fact strange that the Store Director for a Men's store is dressed like a Madresai ka Talib ilum.??...and please don't go all politically correct on me. He is part of the fashion industry and has to present his professional association through his attire and not what his religious ideology is....

Parivel
Jun 22, 2013 03:57pm

Excellent step. Business interests will automatically calm down the both sides. In the similar fashion, India also must consider to allow some Pakistan brand in india. Let us grow together. Pl. note, Europe was a blood shed before 60 years. Now, they are living in a excellent condition. we also can achieve that, by forgetting differences. Nothing must be allowed to disturb peace. Emotion, past incidents, religious beleifs must take a back seat. economics must be the driver.

dean
Jun 22, 2013 04:11pm

@a:how are we sidelining Pakistani shops you can buy shalwar kamiz anywhere in any shop and people will have more choice stop all this negative thinking and remarks our mindset is so warped

TKhan
Jun 22, 2013 06:03pm

@Vikrant: Soon to be renamed "Rehman Shop".

Abdul Rahman Khan
Jun 22, 2013 06:16pm

A good start indeed. In fact, Pakistani stuff is also not bad. Hope some famous Pakistani brands will also have such opportunity in New Delhi, Bombay, Kolcata and other Indian business centres.

Pak 2
Jun 22, 2013 07:09pm

@Madan: Can you report about any business chain from Pakistan that has opened in India ? We Pakistanis always give them business ,what about our business in India?

Khalid
Jun 22, 2013 07:46pm

@Vikrant: Vikrant, I don't agree with your comment that a mob will attack India related business if Pakistan and Indian related relations take a turn for worse. Since 1965 nothing like this happened and people have come to realize that all these things are useless and there is a genuine desire in people to grow their friendship with Indian people. You can ask or read about any Indian who visits Pakistan every normal person is treated like VIP with shopkeeper refusing to take money and treating them like royalty. I do agree there is always going to be terroristic threat from few who don't want these relations to grow. But we just have to live with it for a while.

NotReallyNeeded
Jun 22, 2013 08:12pm

@a: Yes, so what would you like to say to all the Pakistani design houses who've opened their "shops" here in Delhi... And I'm talking about the likes of your Sana Safinaz... Open up ur eyes... Such ignorance...

Arshad
Jun 22, 2013 09:03pm

@khan: yeah Ayub looked like a pumpkin with a moustache

I am with khan
Jun 22, 2013 09:29pm

"...Can't say too much about products and value for money but the showroom presentation of products on dummies looked bland and second hand.." Uttered Rihat...while wearing his raymond suit in the trial room looking at the mirror.

Hmm
Jun 22, 2013 11:24pm

Nobody buys Raymond products even in Inida, who would buy it here :D

Khan
Jun 23, 2013 12:41am

There is nothing wrong with Indian doing business in Pakistan or a Pakistani doing business in India. As long as they know what they are doing. Importing something from places where people have hardly any knowledge of good color schemes or color combination is a big mistake. As the bad material or cheep clothing can be ignored, but...... this is a big BUT, you can be spotted miles away if you are wearing the wrong colors. Off course, a nice expensive silk ties will suit a lot better than a regular satin tie. However, if that expensive silk tie is combined with the wrong color suit and shirt. Then nothing can make you look good.it is that simple.

Amir
Jun 23, 2013 01:49am

@a: As a consumer, it is your choice to buy any product. However, you should think broadly and understand that it would, hopefully, also allow Pakistani stores to open in India which would mean more revenue for those fracnhises and more jobs here.

tom thumb
Jun 23, 2013 03:20am

We already have raymond suits in Lahore , whats new?

alfe
Jun 23, 2013 05:03am

@a: so what do you suggest. Promoting hijabs and shalwar qameez. Please do so and make a contribution to the pakistani economy.

Jalil
Jun 23, 2013 10:32am

@Rihat: Show me one guy in Middle East who is customer friendly - from owners to lower staff.

Fahad Zaman
Jun 23, 2013 02:45pm

Raymonds " The Complete Man "

Smoke
Jun 23, 2013 05:05pm

well Raymond is not for normal people , it's just fancy stuff of rich people.

No Indian would like open shop in Pakistan and blown up second day. it's Pakistani shop who got authorization and contract from Raymond. It's not Raymond's Store. and i don't think it's very big profit deal for Raymond either , its just like "OK you want to sell" ? "take it".

but i heard that bank of Pakistan are opening branches in India ! (i don't know who is going to open account in them). there are many pak men who opened their business in India , some lady opened her shop chain or something. their Actress and actors , singers earning money in India. their people earning money in IPL.. it's always loss deal for Indians to do. business with pak . funny ! still some Pakistani think "what big deal ! we allowed to sell Indian brand , when Pakistan will get entry in India ? " ignorant !

VINOD
Jun 23, 2013 05:59pm

@Nizamuddin Ahmad: Dear Sir, Watch your stores clogged with American, Chinese goods and look at the cars you drive. Have you become slave even after taking aids of millions of dollars?

BRR
Jun 23, 2013 06:54pm

@Hmm: FYI, I had some wonderful suits stitched by them recently, and my teenage son had excellent tuxedos stitched - very classy. Guess you have ni clue.

BRR
Jun 23, 2013 06:55pm

@Hadia Khan: Exactly my thoughts as I looked at the photo.

Ranganath
Jun 23, 2013 06:55pm

@Hmm:Nobody buys Raymond products even in Inida, who would buy it here :D And who told you that?!

Ranganath
Jun 23, 2013 06:58pm

@aaa: Good one:)

Deep
Jun 23, 2013 07:05pm

@Hmm How do u know that no one buys Raymond products in India, in-fact in India ppl r very nationalistic and we give 1st preference to our brands over foreign brands. Raymond's products r very good, i myself wear Raymond.

Not needed
Jun 23, 2013 08:07pm

@Pak 2: did u know we have your many Pakistani design houses here in Delhi? On the contrary, how many Indian design houses does Pakistan boast of??

n FYI, people here go bonkers at Pakistan pavilion in IITF, and Pakistan Lifestyle.... u have no idea hw ur traders go back with loaded pockets 4m here ;) so watch ur facts b4 commenting my friend... :)

Indian
Jun 23, 2013 08:16pm

@Pak 2: There are many Pakistani designers selling in India. Like you we don't Pakistani business in India either. Indian businesses do not need Pakistan to survive either. Pl take back all your artistes from here and close your shops here and we will do you the same favour.

Khan
Jun 23, 2013 09:21pm

You start importing things or fashion from India and in a few years time every man in Pakistan will look and talk like SAnjay Dutt. Just like these days every woman in Pakistan look like Umra-o-Jan Ada. Despite of the fact that Pakistan is way ahead of India in womaen clothing.But we cheated on this one shalwar from Indian movies. And so every girl look like a girl from pakeeza movie. I feel like singing.....Chaltey chaltey..uoonhi koyi milgaya tha

fadoo
Jun 23, 2013 09:50pm

@Khan: Good luck with getting an Indian visa to do business there....

Ultimate_Consumer
Jun 23, 2013 10:49pm

@Pak 2: Ahmed Foods - pickles et al. They came once during the India International Trade Fair - and has been available in certain pockets of Delhi - legitimately. Nice products, I use regularly.

Niazi
Jun 23, 2013 10:54pm

I will not buy Indian product even it is given free

Avik Ray
Jun 24, 2013 04:27am

I like this news. Hope more Indian brands (names) are seen in Pakistan and pakistani stores in India. Nothing to lose, a whole lot to gain.

Vik3
Jun 24, 2013 06:46am

@Hadia Khan: LOL

Abbastoronto
Jun 24, 2013 06:54am

While the Indians are dreaming of taking over the much smaller Pakistani industry, we will have the last laugh once we start opening businesses in India.

India with more capital will always beat Pakistan in production, but never in trade. A Pakistani / Muslim is a born businessman, ready to make a deal. The Quran is a manual for a trader since our Prophet A.S. was a trader/businessman, so was Jinnah who outsmarted both Gandhi and Nehru and the English. In a world survey of positive public attitude towards Business Pakistan came a close second to US as #1, and no doubt Pakistan will take over once peace returns soon.

The fight between our Prophet A.S. and the infidels was about free trade, as was between Jinnah and Nehru, so beginning of free trade is start of Pakistanis taking over India. What arms and wars could not do, business will achieve in a shorter time. Stay tuned.

Akil Akhtar
Jun 24, 2013 09:10am

@Khalid: Sadly the treatment of Pakistanis in india is not the same......hatred is wide spread.

amir khan
Jun 24, 2013 09:24am

As an Indian, I would say this is a good step by Mr. Saqib.

If India and Pakistan can be trade partners, sky is the limit what two countries can do together. Lets put the past behind and create a new peaceful future.

Neeraj
Jun 24, 2013 11:46am

@Khalid: dear khalid, we love Pakistani people, but when somebody comes from your country and attack on our people it hurts us. This Raymond is one of the biggest brand in India selling products in the name of Colorplus, Park Avenue etc. We hope that Pakistani people will like the brand.

Bharat
Jun 24, 2013 12:13pm

That is so sweet. i hope the suit looks good on you

Bharat
Jun 24, 2013 12:13pm

@Khalid:

I ve heard that too and i am coming one day to try your hospitality and cuisine

Bharat
Jun 24, 2013 12:15pm

@Ahmad:

if you want to boycott Indian products, you are welcome too

Start with the movies

I can assure you this mentality is going to bring no benefit .

Syed Hussain Akbari
Jun 24, 2013 01:37pm

I was recently in India and had the chance of feeling Raymond stuff also, Nothing special. Even the Indians do not tend to buy Raymoind. Today India is intoxicated by foreign brands. It is hard to find garments (specially those for men) shoes and so many other daily commodities which are made in India. Raymond penetrating Pakistani Market is just to find a source of living for them. Now it is upto the purchasing psychology of Pakistanis as to how they get effected by Raymond. I know Pakistani stuffs; they are equally good, even better,

expaki
Jun 24, 2013 01:54pm

Moalvi is there to bless the shop???

Amir
Jun 24, 2013 02:09pm

Is the gentleman in the picture the director promoting his company's clothing?

ROHIT PANDEY
Jun 24, 2013 02:23pm

@Nizamuddin Ahmad:

Do you ride Daewoo buses in Pakistan? The company which manufactures Daewoo is officially called Tata Daewoo for an Indian company Tata took over the bankrupt Korean company.

Lots of Indian companies now take over foreign companies...and slowly but surely as Indian economy grows,more and more Indian companies are sure to become multinationals ..lots of business magazines list the prospective Indian companies.

If you want Pakistan to counter it..just see that the Pakistani economy grows andentrepreneurship grows...not try to shackle Indian companies in Pakistan???:):):):)

rohit
Jun 24, 2013 02:54pm

@Niazi: if it is free it will not be called buying.

rohit
Jun 24, 2013 03:07pm

@Khalid: khalid bhai mazaa aagaya..

rohit
Jun 24, 2013 03:10pm

@fadoo: no one is stopping you from coming to India, you are welcome dont give these stupid reasons. Blame and all....

rohit
Jun 24, 2013 03:13pm

@Khurram: if there will be protest from RSS, there will be support feom congress which is 100 times bigger party than RSS. India is a democratic countrym FYI many pakistani stores are a hit among indians, no protests yet. Veena mallik coming soon in a movie, Ali Zafar gave 3 hit movies here, what ARE you talking yaar.. Its Incredible India.. We welcome you because we love you..

rohit
Jun 24, 2013 03:15pm

@Nizamuddin Ahmad: hahaha reading economics can help you...

Alok
Jun 24, 2013 03:54pm

@Pak 2: We do have Pakistani stalls in Delhi's trade fair and other events and they do good business. I've always enjoyed interacting with Pakistanis here as they bring good stuff which is different from our usual one. Hope business overcome political issues.

Majid
Jun 24, 2013 04:10pm

@Niazi: I am sure you also do not watch Bollywood and listen to their music ?

Bryan
Jun 24, 2013 05:06pm

@Niazi: I am a literate consumer. I will buy only that which offers value for money. This is common sense. What you say is non sense....There are many Pakistani businessmen who import thousands of stuff from India via Basra port or Jebel Ali port. Are you not consuming Indian products then? Trade mission tours by Pakistani Chambers of Commerce to India is full and there is a queue. Indians accepted your singers, actors and other artists and they continue to buy property in India and earn good money. Look at the state of your finances, your industry, your economy. Your attitudes and maddening religious outlook will ensure that your business will be confined to bombs, weapons, killings etc. Read conspiracy in everything..... What a nation ....pity...!

Naveed
Jun 24, 2013 06:40pm

No business for Indian brands in pakistan...Pls take it back.

Pak 2
Jun 24, 2013 07:06pm

@Pak 2: It was a genuine question and not more of a comment because I have never seen anything like a chain or shop opening in India by Palistanis.Can any Indian person name a shop in any city that sells goods from Pakistan ?

Jalil
Jun 24, 2013 08:02pm

Those who do not like Indian shop being opened in Pakistan should not shop there. If Raymond's does not do good business in Pakistan, then shop will be closed soon.

The real question is which country's shop will do business in Pakistan? With the likes of TTP roaming the streets - targeting anyone they can - Pakistanis have been made beggars not choosers.

Before Raymond's Pakistani's need to close few other shops & factories. TTP shops & factories.